Selected Literature on Radicalization and De-radicalization from Terrorism

Selected Literature on Radicalization and De-radicalization from Terrorism

Monographs, Edited Volumes, Grey Literature and Prime Articles published since 1970

compiled by Eric Price & Alex P. Schmid

Abbas, T. (2007) (Ed.).Islamic Political Radicalism: A European Comparative Perspective. Edinburgh, University Press.

Abbas, T. (2010). Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics.London, Routledge.

Adekson, A.O. (2004). The "Civil Society" Problematique: Deconstructing Civility and Southern Nigeria's Ethnic Radicalization.New York, Routledge.

Ashour, O. (2009). The De-radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming Armed Islamist Movements. London;New York, Routledge.

Bandura, A. (1998).Mechanism of Moral Disengagement. In: W. Reich (Ed.,) Origins of Terrorism. Baltimore, JohnsHopkinsUniversity Press.

Barrett, R. & Bokhari, L. (2008).Deradicalization and rehabilitation programmes targeting religious terrorists and extremists in the Muslim world. An overview. In: J.

Horgan and T. Bjorgo (Eds.).Leaving Terrorism Behind. Individual and Collective Disengagement. London, Routledge, pp.170-180.

Bjorgo, T. (2005) (Ed.). Root Causes of Terrorism: Myths, Reality and the Way Forward. London, Routledge.

Bjørgo,T. & Horgan, J. (2009) (Eds.).Leaving Terrorism Behind: Individual and Collective Disengagement.Abingdon,New York, Routledge

Browning, D. & Clairmont, D.A. (2007) (Eds.). American Religions and the Family: How Faith Traditions Cope with Modernization and Democracy. New York,Columbia Press.

Buijs, F. J, & Demant. F & Hamdy, A. (2006). Strijders van eigen bodem. Radicale en democratische moslims in Nederland. Amsterdam, University Press.

Burgat, F. (2008). Islamism in the Shadow of al-Qaeda. Austin, TX.,University of Texas Press.

Calvert, J. (2010). Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism.New York, N.Y.,ColumbiaUniversity Press.

Cleveland, W.L. (2004). A History of the Modern Middle East.Boulder, Colo., Westview Press.

Corman, S. & Tretheway, A. & Goodall, H.L. (2008). (Eds.). Weapons of mass persuasion: Strategic communication in the struggle against violent extremism. New York, Peter Lang.

Crenshaw, Martha. (1992).Decisions to Use Terrorism: Psychological Constraints on Instrumental Reasoning. In: D. della Porta (Ed.). Social Movements and Violence. London, JAI Press.

Dearey, M. (2010). Radicalization: the Life Writings of Political Prisoners. Abingdon, Oxon; New York, NY.,Routledge

Ebaugh, H. & Fuchs. R (1988). Becoming an Ex: The Process of Role Exit. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

Esposito, J. L. & Mogahed. D. (2008). Who Speaks for Islam? What a Billion Muslims Really Think. Gallup Press.

Feldstein, S.P. (Ed.,) (2009).Terrorist Ideology and the Implications of Radicalization.New York: Nova Science.

Gerber, H (2008). Remembering and Imagining Palestine: identity and Nationalism from the Crusades to the Present.New York, Palgrave Macmillan.

Forest, J.F. (Ed.). The Making of a Terrorist: Recruitment, Training and Root Causes. London, Westport Publishers, 2006.

Friedland, N. (1992). Becoming a Terrorist: Social and Individual Antecedents. In; L. Howard (Ed.). Terrorism: Roots, Impact, Responses. New York, Praeger Publishers, pp.81-93.

Groen, J. (2010). Women Warriors for Allah: an Islamist Network in the Netherlands.Philadelphia,University of Pennsylvania Press.

Guidere, & Morgan. M, (2007).Le Manuel de recrutement d' Al-Qaida. Paris, Seuil.

Horgan, J. (2003). Leaving terrorism behind. In: A. Silke (Ed.). Terrorists, Victims and Society: Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and is Consequences. London, John Wiley.

Horgan, J. (2005). The Psychology of Terrorism.London, Routledge.

Horgan, J. (2009). Walking Away from Terrorism.New York,Routledge.

Hoskins, A., Akil, A. & O'Loughlin, B. (2010). Radicalization and the Media;Legitimising Violence in the New Media. New York,Routledge.

Hudson, R.A. (1999). Sociology and Psychology of Terrorism: Who Becomes a Terrorist and Why? Guilfort, C.T., The Lyons Press.

Hughes, J. (2007). Chechnya: from Nationalism to Jihad.Philadelphia,University of Pennsylvania Press.

Kassab, E. S. (2010).Contemporary Arab Thought: Cultural Critique in Comparative Perspective.New York,ColumbiaUniversity Press.

Kebede, M. (2008).Radicalism and Cultural Dislocation in Ethiopia, 1960-1974.Rochester, NY.,University of Rochester Press.

Khosrokhavar, Farhad (2005). Suicide Bombers. Allah's New Martrs. London, Pluto Press.

Konrad Adenauer Foundation (2005). Radicalization of Muslim communities in Southeast Asia; International Conference.Konrad Adenauer Stiftung:Makati City, Philippines.

Krueger, Alan B. (2007). What Makes a Terrorist? Economics and the Roots of Terrorism.Princeton, University Press.

Moghaddam, F. (2008). How Globalization Spurs Terrorism: the Lopsided Benefits of "One World" and Why That Fuels Violence. Westport, Conn.,Praeger Security International.

Mukherjee, M. (2004). Peasants in India's Non-violent Revolution: Practice and Theory.New Delhi;Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Murphree, V. (2006). The Selling of Civil Rights: the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Use of Public Relations.New York, Routledge.

Neuman, P.R. (2009) Joining al-Qaeda; Jihadist Recruitment in Europe. New York,Routlege.

Pedahzur, A. (Ed.) (2006). Root Causes of Suicide Terrorism: Globalization of Martyrdom.New York,Routledge.

Pargeter, A. (2008). New Frontiers of Jihad; Radical Islam in Europe. Didcot (UK), Marston.

Pastor, J. F. (2010). Terrorism and Public Safety Policing: Implications for the Obama Presidency.Boca Raton, CRC Press.

Peniel, E. J. (Ed.,) (2006). The Black Power Movement: Rethinking the Civil Rights-Black Power Era.New York, Routledge.

Podhoretz, N. (2007). World War IV: the Long Struggle Against Islamofascism.New York, Doubleday.

Porta, D. della. (Ed.,)(1992). Social Movements and Violence.London, JAI Press.

Ramakrishna, K. (2009). Radical Pathways: Understanding Muslim Radicalization in Indonesia.Westport, Conn., Praeger Security International.

Ranstorp, M. (2010). Understanding Violent Radicalism; Terrorist and Jihadist Movements in Europe.New York,Routledge.

Reich, W. (Ed.) (1998). Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind. Cambridge, University Press.

Richardson, L. (2006). What Terrorists Want. Understanding the Terrorist Threat. London, John Murray.

Rosenthal, J.A. (Ed.) (2006). State of the Struggle: Report on theBattle Against Terrorism.Washington, D.C., Council on Global Terrorism.

Roshwald, A. (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, Russia, and the Middle East, 1914-1923.London; New York, Routledge.

Roy, O. (2008). Islamic Terrorist Radicalisation in Europe. In: S. Amghar, A. Boubekeur and M. Emerson (Eds.) European Islam. Challenges for public policy and society. Brussels, Centre for European Policy Studies.

Sageman, M. (2008). Leaderless Jihad: Terror Networks in the Twenty-first Century.Philadelphia,University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding Terrorist Networks. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

Silke, A. (2003). Becoming a terrorist.In: A .Silke (Ed.).: Psychological Perspectives on Terrorism and its Consequences. p. 29-53. (Wiley Series in Psychology of Crime, Policing and Law.) Oxford,Wiley-Blackwell.

Singha Roy, D.K. (2004). Peasant Movements in Post-colonial India: Dynamics of Mobilization and Identity.New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications.

Sprinzak, E. (1998). The psycho-political formation of extreme left terrorism in a democracy: The case of the Weathermen. In: W. Reich (Ed.,) Origins of Terrorism. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins Press.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the Name of God: Why Religious Militants Kill.New York, Harper Collins.

Vermaat, E. (2005). The Hofstadgroup: A radical Islamic network. Soesterberg, Uitgeverij Aspekt.

Vermaat, E. (2006). Nederlandse Jihad. Het proces tegen de Hofstadgroep. Soesterberg, Uitgeverij Aspekt.

Vidino, L. (2005).Al Qaeda in Europe: The New Battleground of Global Jihad. Amherst, New York. Prometheus Books

Vidino, L. (2010) The New Muslim Brotherhood in the West.

Waldmann, P. (2009). Radikalisierung in der Diaspora: Wie Islamisten im Westen zu Terroristen werden. Hamburg,Murmann .

Waldmann, P. (2010). Radicalisation in the Diaspora: Why Muslims in the West Attack Their Host Countries. Madrid, Elcano.

Wasmund, K. (1986). The political socialization of West German terrorists. In: P. Merkl (Ed.,) Political Violence and Terror: Motives an Motivations. Berkeley, University of California Press.

Wiktorowicz, Q. (Ed.,) (2004). Islamic Activism: A Social Movement Theory Approach.Indiana, Indiana University Press.

Grey Literature

Al-Awlaki, A. (2010). Western Jihad is Here to Stay.New York, NY.,NEFA Foundation.


Alterman, J. B. (1999). How Terrorism Ends.Washington,D.C., US Institute for Peace. (Special Report no. 48)


AIVD (Netherlands Intelligence and Security Service) (1998). Political Islam in the Netherlands. The Hague, AIVD.

AIVD. (2004). From Dawa to Jihad. The Various Threats from Radical Islam to the Democratic Legal Order. The Hague, AIVD.

AIVD. (2006). Violent Jihad in the Netherlands. The Hague, AIVD.

AIVD. (2010).Disengagement en deradicalisering van jihadisten in Nederland.The Hague, AIVD.

Ashour, O. (March 2010). Lions Tamed? An Inquiry into the Causes of De-Radicalization of Militant Islamist Movements.Chicago, International Studies

Association, 28 February 2007. [Presentation Paper]

Ashour, O. & Boucek, C. (16 April 2009). De-Radicalization in Egypt, Algeria, and Libya.Washington, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. []

Bakker, E. (2006). Jihadi terrorists in Europe, their characteristics and the circumstances in which they joined the jihad: an exploratory study. The Hague, Clingendael.

Barari, H. (2009). Muslim Brothhood in Japan: Hamas in Ascendence. PolicyWatch #1585. WashingtonD.C., The Washington Institute.

Benraad, M. & Abdelbakery. M (2009). Transition in Egypt; Radicals on the Rise?PolicyWatch #1588. Washington: The Washington Institute.

Beutel, A. J. (2007) Radicalization and Homegrown Terrorism in Western Muslim Communities: Lessons Learned for America, Minaret of Freedom Institute,

Bethesda, MD. []

Bjorgo, T. (2005) Reducing Recruitment and Promoting Disengagement from Extremist Groups: The Case of Racist Sub-Cultures. In: C. Benard, Cheryl. (Ed.). A Future for the Young: Options for Helping Middle Eastern Youth Escape the Trap of Radicalization. St. Monica, RAND, (RAND Working Paper WR-354)[]

Bokhari, L. et al. (Eds.). Paths to Global Jihad.Oslo, FFI.[]

Boyd, D. et al. (2008)Why Have We Not Been Attacked Again?Competing and

Complementary Hypotheses forHomeland Attack Frequency. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Advanced Systems and Concepts Office and Science Applications International Corporation.

Center on Global Counterrorism Cooperation (2008) Radicalization / De-radicalization; Lessons for the Next U.S. President. [Summary] New York, NY., Center on Global Counterterrorism Cooperation. []

Change Institute.(2008). The Beliefs, Ideologies and Narratives of Violent Radicalization.London, Change Institute. []

Change Institute. (2008).Study on the best practices in cooperation betweenauthorities and civil society with a view to the preventionand response to violent radicalization. London, Change Institute,

COT (Netherlands Institute for Safety, Security and Crisis Management) et al.

(17 November 2008). Radicalization, Recruitment and the EU Counter-radicalization Strategy. The Hague, COT. []

COT et al. (1 April 2008). Causal Factors of Radicalization. The Hague, COT. []

COTet al.(17 Nov. 2008). Radicalization, Recruitment and the EU

Counter-radicalization Strategy. The Hague, COT. []

COT et al. (May 2008). The EU Counterradicalization Strategy. Evaluating EU policies concerning causes of radicalization. The Hague, COT .[ ]

Council of the European Union (2005). The European Union Strategy for Combating Radicalisation and Recruitment to Terrorism.Brussels,European Commission. []

Council of the European Union (2007). The European Union Strategy for Combating Radicalization and Recruitment to Terrorism - Implementation Report.Brussels, European Commission. []

Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja. (2008). Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe I: The PotentialContribution of Social Movement Theory. Copenhagen, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS). (DIIS Working Paper no. 2008/2).

Dalgaard-Nielsen, Anja. (2008). Studying Violent Radicalization in Europe II: The Potential Contribution of Socio-Psychological and Psychological Approaches. Copenhagen, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS). (DIIS Working Paper no. 2008/3)

Demant, F. & Slootman, M. & Buijs, F. & Tillie, J. (2008).Decline and disengagement.An analysis of processes of deradicalisation.Amsterdam, IMES, 2008. []

Emerson, M. & Kausch, K. & Youngs, R. (2006). (Eds.).Islamist Radicalisation the

Challenge for Euro-Mediterranean Relations. Centre for European Policy Studies, Brussels; FRIDE, Madrid. []

European Commission (2006). Terrorist recruitment: a Commission's Communication addressing the factors contributing to violent radicalisation. MEMO/05/329. []

European Commission. Expert Group on Violent Radicalisation. (2008)Radicalisation Processes Leading to Acts of Terrorism. A Concise Report submitted to the European Commissionon 15 May 2008. []

Fighel. J. (2009). The Saudi Double Game; The Internet "Counter-radicalization" Campaign. Tel Aviv,The Intelligence and TerrorismInformationCenter. []

Forest, J.J.F. (2009). Static and Interactive Frames of Terrorism Analysis.Combating TerrorismCenter at West Point. []

Garfinkel, Renee(2007). Personal Transformations: Moving From Violence To Peace. Washington, D.C., USInstitute of Peace, (Special Report 186). []

Georgeon, O. & J.H., et al. (2010). Process Modeling for the Study of Non-State Political Violence. BRIMS [Conference paper] []

Global Futures Forum. (2007). The World and the Neighbourhood:Emerging Perspectives on Radicalism and Social Conflict. Ottawa, Global Futures Forum Workshop, 12-13 March 2007.117 pp.

Gruen, M. (2010). Feiz Muhammad: Extremist Ideologue with Influence in the West.New York, NY.:NEFA Foundation.[]

Hearne, E.B.&Fink, N.C. (2008). Beyond Terrorism: Deradicalization and Disengagement from Violent Extremism. New York, NY.: IPI. []

Hoffman, B. (et al.) (2007). The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism: a Joint Conference by the RAND Corporation and the Center for Security Studies.Santa Monica, Calif.:RAND. []

Horgan, J. & Braddock, K. (2009). Assessing the Effectiveness of Current De-

Radicalization Initiatives and Identifying Implications for the Development of US-Based Initiatives in Multiple Settings. Maryland, MD.:University of Maryland, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism.[]

International Crisis Group (19 Nov. 2009).'Deradicalisation ' and Indonesian Prisons. Asia Briefing, No. 142, Jakarta. []

Jacobson, M. (2010). Terrorist Dropouts; Learning from Those Who Have Left.

WashingtonD.C., The Washington Institute.[]

Jenkins, B. (2007). Building an army of believers. Jihadist radicalisation and recruitment. Testimony presented before the House Homeland Security Committee, Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing and Terrorism Risk Assessment, 5 April 2007.Santa Monica, RAND, CA., []

Jenkins, B.M. (2007). Defining the Role of a National Commission on the Prevention of Violent Radicalization and Homegrown TerrorismSanta Monica, RAND, CA.,[]

Johnston, A.K. (2009).Assessing the Effectiveness of Deradicalization Programs for Islamist Extremists. Monterey, Cal., Naval PostgraduateSchool, Master Thesis, Dec. 2009.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark (2007). Countering Radicalization through Development Assistance - A Country Assessment Tool. Copenhagen, Ministry of Foreign Affairs. []

Nesser, P. (2004). Jihad in Europe. Exploring the motivations for Salafi-Jihadi terrorism inEurope post-milennium.Oslo, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo.

Nesser, P. (2006). Jihad in Europe. Recruitment for Terrorist Cells in Europe:. In:

Bokhari, L. et al. (Eds.) Paths to Global Jihad.Oslo, FFI.[]

Nesser, P. (2006). How does radicalization occur in Europe? Paper presented at the 2nd Inter-Agency Radicalization Conference, 10 July 2006. Washington,D.C., US

Department of Homeland Security, 2006. []

PET, Center for Terroranalyse (CTA) (2008). Radikalisering og terror. []

Porges, M.L. (2010).The Saudi Deradicalization Experiment. Council of Foreign Relations. []

RAND (2010). Reform or Radicalisation. London, RAND Europe. []

Ranstorp, M. (2009).Preventing Violent Radicalization and Terrorism; The Case of Indonesia.SwedishNationalDefenceCollege. []

Silber, M.D. & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The Homegrown Threat. New York City Police Department.[]

Slootman, M & Tillie, M. (2006, October). Processes of Radicalisation: Why some Amsterdam Muslims become radicals. Institute for Migration and Ethnic Studies, Universiteit van Amsterdam.

Stigler, A.L. (2007). Countering ideological support for terrorism. Paper presented at the International Studies Association Conference.

Stevens, T. & Neumann, P.R. (2009). Countering Online Radicalisation. A Strategy for Action. London, The International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence (ICSR), King's College.[]

Taarnby, M. (2005). Recruitment of Islamist Terrorists in Europe: Trends and Perspectives. Aarhus, Centre for Cultural Research, University of Aarhus.

Trethewey, A. & Corman, S.R. & Goodall, B. (14 Sept. 2009). Out of Their Heads and Into Their Conversation: Countering Extremist Ideology. ArizonaStateUniversity, Consortium for Strategic Communication, (Report no. 0902).[]

United Nations Counter-Terrorism Implementation Task Force. (2008, September). Report of the Working Group on Radicalization and Extremism that Lead to Terrorism. New York, UN. []

United States. Congress. House. Committee onSecurity. Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment. (2008). Assessing and Addressing the Threat: Defining the Role of a National Commission on the Prevention of Violence Radicalization and Homegrown Terrorism.Washington,U.S. G.P.O.[]

United States. Congress. House. Committee onSecurity. Subcommittee on Intelligence, Information Sharing, and Terrorism Risk Assessment. (2009). Radicalization, Information Sharing and Community Outreach: Protecting the Homeland from Homegrown Terror.

Washington, U.S. G.P.O. []

United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on HomelandSecurity and Governmental Affairs. (2007). Prison Radicalization: Are Terrorist Cells Forming in U.S.Cell Blocks? Washington.,U.S., G.P.O. []

Veldhuis, T. & Bakker, E. (2009). Muslims in the Netherlands: Tensions and Violent ConflictMICROCON Policy Working Paper 6, University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K. []

Von Hippel, K. (2006). Counter Radicalization Development Assistance, Copenhagen, Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS).[].

Veldhuis, T. & Staun, J. (2010). Islamist Radicalisation. A Root Cause Model .The Hague, Clingendael. []

Wiktorowicz, Q. (2004). Joining the Cause: Al-Muhajiroun and Radical Islam: RhodesCollege. []

Wiktorowitz, Q. (2005). Radical Islam Rising: Muslim Extremism in the West. Oxford, Rowman & Littlefield,.

Zimbardo, P. (2008). The Lucifer Effect. Understanding How Good People Turn Evil. New York, Random House.

Zimmermann, D. & William Rosenau, W. (Eds.) (2009).The Radicalization of Diasporas and Terrorism.Züricher Beiträge zur Sicherheitspolitik, Nr. 80. []

Prime Journal Articles

Ashour, Omar (2008).'De-radicalization of Jihad? The Impact of Egyptian Islamist Revisionists on al-Qaeda. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (5)p. 11-14.

Atran, S. (2003) Genesis of Suicide Terrorism, Science 299 (5612, 7 March), pp. 1534 - 1539.

Awan, A.N. (2007) Virtual jihadist media: Function, legitimacy and radicalizing efficacy.European Journal of Cultural Studies10 (3, August) pp. 389-408.

Boucek. C. (2007). Extremist re-education and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. Terrorism Monitor, 5 (16).

Brighton, S. (2007). British Muslims, multiculturalism and UK foreign policy: integration' and `cohesion' in and beyond the stateInternational Affairs83 (1, January) pp. 1-17.

Bux, S. (2007). Muslim Youths, Islam and Violent Radicalization: Addressing Some Myths. The Police Journal80 (3, September), pp. 267-278.

Choudhury, T. (2009). The Terrorism Act 2006: Discouraging TerrorismExtreme Speech and Democracy (February) pp. 461-486.[]

Crenshaw, M. (1981).'The Causes of Terrorism', Comparative Politics, 13, pp. 379-399.

Cronin, A.K. (2002/3) Behind the Curve: Globalization and International Terrorism International Security 27 (3), Winter, pp. 30-58.

Cronin, A. K. (2006) How Al-Qaeda Ends: The Decline and Demise of Terrorist Groups. International Security, 31(1) pp.32-39.

Cusack, J. & Taylor, M. (1993) Resurgence of a terrorist organization part 1: The UDA, a case study. Terrorism and Political Violence 5 (3, Autumn) pp. 1-27.

Dawson, L.L. (2010) The Study of New Religious Movements and the Radicalization of Home-Grown Terrorists: Opening a Dialogue.Terrorism and Political Violence.22 (1) pp.1 – 21.

DeMause, L. (2002).'The childhood origins of terrorism'. Journal of Psychohistory, 29 (4), pp. 340-348.

Dugan, L. & Huang, J.Y. (2008) (et al.,) Sudden desistance from terrorism: The Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation ofArmenia and the Justice Commandos of the Armenian Genocide.Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict 1 (3, November) pp. 231 - 249.

Ferrero, M. (2005) Radicalisation as a Reaction to Failure: An Economic Model of Islamic Extremism. Public Choice, 122, pp. 199-220.

Friedland, N. & Merari, A. (1985). 'The Psychological Impact of Terrorism: A Double-Edged Sword'. Political Psychology6 (4, December), pp. 591-604.

Gibson, S.D. (2009) Future roles of the UK intelligence system.Review of International Studies35, pp. 917-928.

Githens-Mazer, J. (2008) 'Variations on a Theme: Radical Violent Islamism and European North African Radicalization'.PS: Political Science & Politics41 (1), pp.19-24.

Gunaratna, R. & Ali, M. B. (2009) 'De-Radicalization Initiatives in Egypt: A Preliminary Insight'.Studies in Conflict and Terrorism32 (4, April) pp. 277-291.

Hamm, M. S. (2009) 'Prison Islam in the Age of Sacred Terror'.British Journal of Criminology, 49 (5, September), pp. 667-685.

Hafez, M.M. ( 2008).' Radicalization in the Persian Gulf: Assessing the potential of Islamist militancy in Saudi Arabia and Yemen'. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict (1, 1 March) pp. 6 - 24.

Hassan,M.H. (2007). 'Singapore's Muslim community-based initiatives against JI'. Perspectives on Terrorism, I (5).

Horgan, J. (2009) Deradicalization or disengagement? A process in need of clarity and a counterterrorisminitiative in need of evaluationRevista de Psicología Social 24 (2, May), pp. 291-98.

Horgan, J. (2008).'From Profiles to Pathways and Roots to Routes: Perspectives from Psychology on Radicalization into Terrorism'. The ANNALS of the AmericanAcademy of Political and Social Science, 618, (1) pp. 80-94.

Kirby, A. (2007) 'The London Bombers as "Self-Starters": A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalization and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques', Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (5, May), pp. 415 - 428.

Kohlmann, E. (2010).' A Beacon for Extremists: the Ansar al- Mujahideen Wen Forum'.CTC Sentinel3 (2) February, p. 1- 4. []

Hafez, M.M. (2008).' Radicalization in the Persian Gulf: Assessing the potential of Islamist militancy inSaudi Arabia and Yemen'. Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways Toward Terrorism and Genocide, 1 (1), pp. 6-24.

Jackson, P.I. (2009) 'Measuring Muslim Integration in Europe'. Democracy and Security5 (3), pp. 223–248.

Jacques, K.& Taylor, P.J. (2009) 'Female Terrorism: A Review'. Terrorism and PoliticalViolence 21(3), pp.499–515.

Johnsen, G. D. & Boucek, C. (2008) 'The Dilemma of the Yemeni Detainees at GuantanamoBay'.CTC Sentinel 1 (12, November ) pp.1–4.[].

Kirby, A. (2007).'The London Bombers as 'Self-Starters'. A Case Study in Indigenous Radicalisations and the Emergence of Autonomous Cliques'. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (5), pp. 415-428.

Kruglanski, A.W. & Gelfand, M & Gunaratna, R. (2010).' Detainee Deradicalization: A Challenge fo Psychological Science'. Observer [Association for Psycological Science], 23, (1, January).

Kruglanski, A.W. &Fishman, S. (2009).' Psychological Factors in Terrorism and Counterterrorism: Individual, Group, andorganizational Levels of Analysis'. Social Issues and Policy Review, 3 (1), pp. 1-44.

Kruglanski, A. W. & Crenshaw, M. (et al.) (2007) 'What Should This Fight Be Called? Metaphors of Counterterrorism and Their Implications'. Psychological Science in the Public Interest,8(3, December), pp. 97-133.

LaFree, G. & Erin Miller, E. (2008). 'Desistance from terrorism: What can we learn from criminology?',Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict, 1 (3), November) pp. 203-230.

Laub, J.H. & Sampson, R.J. (2001) 'Understanding Desistance from Crime'. Crime and Justice, 28, pp. 1-69.

Lauwers, G. (2003).' Discussing Autonomy and Independence for Corsica'.Contextualizing Secession (July), pp. 49-71

Lentini, P. (2008) 'Understanding and combating terrorism: Definitions, origins and strategies.' Australian Journal of Political Science ,43 (1, March) pp. 133-140.

Levine, S. (1999). 'Youth in Terroristic Groups, Gangs, and Cults: The Allure, the Animus, and the Alienation'. Psychiatric Annals, 29 (6), pp. 342-349.

Loza, W. (2007). 'Psychology of Extremism and Terrorism: A Middle-Eastern Perspective'. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 12 (2), pp.141-155.

McCauley, C. & Moskalenko, S. (2008) 'Mechanisms of Political Radicalization: Pathways Toward Terrorism.' Terrorism and Political Violence,20 (3, July) pp. 415 – 433.

Menkhaus, K. (2007) 'The crisis in Somalia: Tragedy in five acts'.African Affairs424 (23 July), pp. 357-390.

Mesquita, de B., Ethan & Dickson, E. S. (2007).' The Propaganda of the Deed: Terrorism, Counterterrorism, and Mobilization'.American Journal of Political Science 51, (2, April) pp. 364-381.

Moskalenko, S. & McCauley, C. (2009).' Measuring Political Mobilization: The Distinction Between Activism and Radicalism'.Terrorism and Political Violence21 (2, April), pp. 239-260.

Munthe, T. (2005).'Terrorism: Not Who but Why?'The RUSI Journal150, (4, August) 2, pp. 8-12.

Ould Bah, A. S. (2010).' Reflexions on Forms and Dimensions of Radicalization(s).' Freedom from Fear (23, March) []

Pantucci, R. (2010).' A contest to democracy? How the UK has responded to the current terrorist threat'.Democratization, 17 (2) pp.251-271.

Post, J.M. & Farhana, A. (2009) 'The Psychology of Suicide Terrorism'.Psychiatry: Interpersonal & Biological Processes 72 (1, Spring) pp. 13 - 31.

Post, J.M & Sheffer, G. (2007) 'The Risk of Radicalization and Terrorism in U.S. Muslim Communities'. Brown Journal of World Affairs 13 (2) Spring/Summer, pp.101-112.[]

Ranstorp, M. (1996).' Terrorism in the Name of Religion'. Journal of International Affairs, 50 (Summer), pp. 41-52.

Rice, S.K. (2009) 'Emotions and terrorism research: A case for a social-psychological agenda'. Journal of Criminal Justice 37 (3, May-June) pp. 248-255.

Ripley, A. (13 March 2008)' Reverse Radicalism.' TIME.[,28804,1720049_1720050_1722062,00.html]

Sageman, M. & Hoffman, B. (2008).' Does Osama Still Call the Shots? Debating the Containment of al-Qaeda's Leadership.' Foreign Affairs (July/August).

Silke, A. (2008) Holy Warriors: Exploring the Psychological Processes of Jihadi RadicalizationEuropean Journal of Criminology,5 (1, January), pp. 99-123.

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About the Compilers: Eric Price is a Professional Information Specialist; Alex P. Schmid is Editor of 'Perspectives on Terrorism'.

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Perspectives on Terrorism is  a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies

ISSN  2334-3745 (Online)

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