Selected Literature on (i) Radicalization and Recruitment, (ii) De-Radicalization and Dis-Engagement, and (iii) Counter-Radicalization and Countering Violent Extremism

Selected Literature on (i) Radicalization and Recruitment, (ii) De-Radicalization and Dis-Engagement, and (iii) Counter-Radicalization and Countering Violent Extremism


Compiled by David C. Hofmann and Alex P. Schmid

 

I. Bibliography on Radicalization and Recruitment

Books

Abbas, T. (2007). Islamic political radicalism: A European perspective. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Abu-Amr, Z. (1994). Islamic fundamentalism in the West Bank and Gaza. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Abuza, Z. (2003). Militant Islam in Southeast Asia: Crucibles of terror. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Abuza, Z. (2006). Uncivil Islam: Muslims, politics, and violence in Indonesia. New York: Routledge.

Almond, G. A., Appleby, R. S., & Sivan, E. (2003). Strong religion: The rise of fundamentalism around the world. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Awan, A. N., Hoskins, A., & O'Loughlin, B. (2011). Radicalisation and media: Connectivity and terrorism in the new media ecology. London; New York: Routledge.

Bal, I., Ozeren, S., & Alper-Sozer, M. (2011). Multi-faceted approach to radicalization in terrorist organizations.  Amsterdam: IOS Press.

Bar, S. (2008). Warrants for terror: The fatwas of radical Islam and the duty to jihad. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Berger, J. M. (2011). Jihad Joe: Americans who go to war in the name of Islam. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.

Berko, A. (2009). The path to paradise: The inner world of suicide bombers and their dispatchers. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.

Beutel, A. J. (2007). Radicalization and homegrown terrorism in western Muslim communities: Lessons learned for America. Bethesda, MD: Minaret of Freedom Institute.

Buijs, F. J., Demant, F., & Hamdy, A. (2006). Home grown warriors: Radical and democratic Muslims in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Cole, J., & Cole, B. (2008). Martyrdom: Radicalisation and terrorist violence among British Muslims. Hove: Pennant.

Coolsaet, R. (Ed.) (2011). Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge in Europe. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

Deary, M. (2010). Radicalization: The Life Writings of Political Prisoners. New York: Routledge.

Dietmar, L. (2002). Jugendliche maghrebinischer Herkunft zwischen Stadtpolitik und Lebenswelt [North African Youth between Urban Policy and Living Situation]. Wiesbaden, Germany: VS Verlag.

Dovert, S., Madinier, R., & IRASEC. (2003). Les musulmans d'Asie du sud-est face au vertige de la radicalisation. Paris: Indes savantes.

Dunleavy, P. T. (2011). The fertile soil of jihad: Terrorism's prison connection. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.

Emerson, S. (2002). American jihad: The terrorists living among us. New York: The Free Press.

Esposito, J. (Ed.). (1997). Political Islam: Revolution, radicalism, or reform? Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Forest, J. J. F. (Ed.). (2006). The making of a terrorist: Recruitment, training, and root causes. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Ganor, B. (Ed.). (2007). Hypermedia seduction for terrorist recruiting. Amsterdam, Holland: IOS Press.

Glees, A. & Pope, C. (2005). When Students Turn to Terror: Terrorist and Extremist Activity on British Campuses. London: Social Affairs Unit.

Groppi, M. (2010). Islamization processes in Italy. Herzliya, Israel: International Center for Counter Terrorism.

Hafez, M. (2003). Why Muslims rebel: Repression and resistance in the Islamic world. Boulder, Colorado: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Harrigan, J., & El-Said, H. (2011). Globalisation, democratisation, and radicalisation in the Arab world. Basingstoke; New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Horgan, J. (2005). The psychology of terrorism. London: Routledge.

Imre, R., Patterson, B., & Snider, J. (2010). Critical perspectives on terrorism: Civilization, liquidisation, radicalisation. Farnham: Ashgate.

Jenkins, B.M. (2011). Stray dogs and virtual armies: Radicalization and recruitment to jihadist terrorism in the United States since 9/11. Santa Monica: RAND Corporation.

Joffe, G. (2011). Islamist radicalisation in North Africa politics and process. New York: Routledge.

Kepel, G. (1993). Muslim extremism in Egypt: The prophet and the pharaoh. Berkley: University of California Press.

Khosrokhavar, F. (2004). L’islam dans les prisons. Paris: Balland.

Krueger, A. B. (2008). What makes a terrorist: Economics and the roots of terrorism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Lappin, Y. (2011). Virtual caliphate: Exposing the Islamist state on the Internet. Washington, DC: Potomac Books.

Leiken, R. S. (2012). Europe's angry Muslims: The revolt of the second generation. New York: Oxford University Press.

Mandaville, P. (2004). Transnational Muslim politics: Reimagining the umma (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.

Masters, E., & Deffenbaugh, A. (2007). The lesser jihad: Recruits and the al-Qaida network. Landham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2011). Friction: How radicalization happens to them and us. New York: Oxford University Press.

McRoy, A. (2006). From Rushdie to 7/7: The radicalisation of Islam in Britain. London: Social Affairs Unit.

Moghaddam, F. M. (2006). From the terrorists' point of view: What they experience and why they come to destroy. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Moniquet, C. (2005). The radicalisation of Muslim youth in Europe: The reality and scale of the threat. Washington, D.C.: The US Committee on International Relations.

Neumann, P. R., & Rogers, B. (2007). Recruitment and mobilisation for the Islamist militant movement in Europe. Kings College: University of London.

Pargeter, A. (2008). The new frontiers of jihad: Radical Islam in Europe. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Pick, T. M., Speckhard, A., & Jacuch, B. (2009). Home-grown terrorism understanding and addressing the root causes of radicalisation among groups with an immigrant heritage in Europe. Amsterdam; Washington, D.C.: IOS Press.

Pisiou, D. (2012). Islamist radicalisation in Europe: An occupational change process. London; New York: Routledge.

Pujades, D., & Salam, A. (1995). La tentation du Jihad. L’Islam radical en France. J.C. Lattes.

Ramakrishna, K. (2009). Radical pathways: Understanding Muslim radicalization in Indonesia. Westport, CT: Praeger Security International.

Sageman, M. (2004). Understanding terror networks. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Sageman, M. (2008). Leaderless jihad: Terror networks in the twenty-first century. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Silber, M. D. (2011). The al Qaeda factor: Plots against the West. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.

Spekhard, Anne. (2012) Talking to Terrorists. Understanding the Psycho-Social Motivations of Militant Jihadi Terrorists, Mass Hostage Takers, Suicide Bombers & Martyrs. McLean,VA: Advances Press.

Stern, J. (2003). Terror in the name of god: Why religious militants kill. New York: HarperCollins.

Taarnby, M., Hallundbaek, L. (2010). Al-Shabaab: The internationalization of militant Islamism in Somalia and the implications for radicalisation processes in Europe. Copenhagen: Ministry of Justice.

Tamimi, A. (2007). Hamas: Unwritten chapters. London: Hurst & Co.

Trivedi, R.N. (2009). Radicalization and escalation of modern terrorism. New Delhi: MD Publications Pvt Ltd.

Ungerer, C. (2011). Jihadists in jail radicalisation and the Indonesian prison experience. Barton, A.C.T.: Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

United States Congress. (2010). Using the web as a weapon: The Internet as a tool for violent radicalization and homegrown terrorism. Washington: Bibliogov.

Veldhuis, T., & Staun, J. (2009). Islamist radicalisation: A root cause model. Den Haag: Netherlands Institute of International Relations Clingendael.

Vidino, L. (2006). Al Qaeda in Europe: The new battleground of international jihad. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Vidino, L. (2011). Radicalisation, linkage and diversity: Current trends in Terrorism in Europe.  Santa Monica: RAND.

Volkan, V. (1997). Blood lines: From ethnic pride to ethnic terrorism. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Victoroff, Jess & Arie W. Kruglanski (Eds.) Psychology of Terrorism. Classic and Contemporary Insights.  New York: Psychology Press, 2009.

Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005). Radical Islam rising: Muslim extremism in the West. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield

 

Periodicals, Reports and Book Chapters

Abbas, T. (2007). Muslim minorities in Britain: Integration, multiculturalism and radicalism in the post-7/7 period. Journal of Intercultural Studies, 28(3), 287-300.

Abbas, T. (2007). A theory of Islamic political radicalism in Britain: Sociology, theology and international political economy. Contemporary Islam, 1(2), 109-122.

Al-Berry, K. (2005). Inside the Yearnings of a Potential Suicide Bomber. The Observer, 24 July.

Algemene Inlichtingen-en Veiligheidsdienst [AIVD]. (2006). Violent jihad in the Netherlands: Current trends in the Islamist terrorist threat. The Hague: Ministry of the Interior and Kingdom Relations.

Anderson, L. (1997). Fulfilling prophecies: State policy and Islamist radicalism. In J. Esposito (Ed.), Political Islam: Revolution, radicalism or reform? . Boulder: Lynne Rienner.

Anzalone, C. (2010). Zachary Chesser: An American, grassroots jihadist strategist on raising the next generation of Al-Qaeda supporters. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4 (5).

Asal, V., Fair, C. C., & Shellman, S. (2008). Consenting to a child's decision to join a jihad: Insights from a survey of militant families in Pakistan. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(11), 973-994.

Atran, S. (2008). Who becomes a terrorist today? Perspectives on Terrorism, 2(5).

Atran, S. (2009). Genesis of suicide terrorism. In J. Victoroff, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.),  Psychology of Terrorism: Classic and Contemporary Insights (pp. 145-156). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Atran, S. (2009). Soft power and the psychology of suicide bombing. In J. Victoroff, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), The psychology of terrorism: Classic and contemporary insights (pp. 441-444). New York: Taylor & Francis Group.

Bakker, E. (2006). Jihadi terrorists in Europe: Their characteristics and the circumstances in which they joined Jihad: An exploratory study. The Hague: Netherlands Institute of International Relations.

Barlett, J., & Miller, C. (2012). The edge of violence: Towards telling the difference between violent and non-violent radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24 (1), 1-21.

Barrett, R. S. (2011). Interviews with killers: Six types of combatants and their motivations for joining deadly groups. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (10), 749-764.

Bermingham, A., Conway, M., McInerney, L., O'Hare, N., & Smeaton, A. F. (2009). Combining social network analysis and sentiment analysis to explore the potential for online radicalisation. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

Bernholz, P. (2004). Supreme values as the basis for terror. European Journal of Political Economy, 20, 317-333.

Bittner, E. (1963). Radicalism and the organization of radical movements. American Sociological Review, 28 (6), 928-940.

Blee, K. M. (2005). Women and organized racial terrorism in the United States. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28 (5), 421-433.

Bokhari, L., Hegghammer, T., Lia, B., Nesser, P., & Tonnesen, T. H. (2006). Paths to global jihad: Radicalization and recruitment to terror networks. (March 16th). Oslo, Norway: Proceedings from a FFI Seminar.

Borum, R. (July 2003). Understanding the terrorist mindset. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.

Borum, R. (2011). Radicalization into violent extremism: A review of social science theories. Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4), 7-36.

Borum, R. (2011). Rethinking radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4).

Bouhana, N., & Wikstrom, P. H. Al Qa'ida-influenced radicalisation: A rapid evidence assessment guided by situational action theory.  London: UK Home Office.

Braungart, R., & Braungart, M. (1992). The protest to terrorism: The case of SDS and the Weathermen.  International Social Movement Research, 4 (1) , 45-78.

Brooks, R. (2011). Muslim “Homegrown” terrorism in the United States: How serious is the threat? International Security, 36 (2), 7- 47.

Burdman, D. (2003). Education, indoctrination, and incitement: Palestinian children on their way to martyrdom. Terrorism and Political Violence,  15 (1).

Change Institute. (2008). Studies into violent radicalization. Lot 2: The beliefs ideologies and narratives. London.

Choudhury, T. (2007). The role of Muslim identity politics in radicalisation: A study in progress. London: Department for Communities and Local Government.

Cole, J. (2012). Radicalisation in virtual worlds: Second life through the eyes of an avatar. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 7(1), 66-79.

Coolsaet, R. (2011). Counterterrorism and counter-radicalisation in Europe: How much unity in diversity? In: R. Coolsaet (Ed.). Jihadi terrorism and the radicalization challenge: European and American Experiences. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

COT. (2008).  Radicalisation, recruitment and the EU counter-radicalisation strategy. The Hague: COT, 17.

Cottee, S. (2011). Jihadism as a subcultural response to social strain: Extending Marc Sageman's "bunch of guys" thesis. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (5), 730-751.

Cottee, S., & Hayward, K. (2011). Terrorist (E)motives: The existential attractions of terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (12), 963-986.

Crone, M., & Harrow, M. (2010). Homegrown terrorism in the West, 1989-2009. ( No. 30). Copenhagen: DIIS Working Paper, Danish Institute for International Studies.

Crone, M., & Harrow, M. (2011). Homegrown terrorism in the West. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23(4), 521-536.

Cross, R., & Snow, D. A. (2011). Radicalism within the context of social movements: Processes and types. Journal of Strategic Security, 4(4).

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (March 2008). Studying violent radicalization in Europe. Part II. The potential contribution of socio-psychological and psychological approaches. DIIS Working Paper, Copenhagen,

Dalgaard-Nielsen, A. (2010). Violent radicalization in Europe: What we know and what we do not know. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33, 797-814.

Dawson, L. L. (2010). The study of new religious movements and the radicalization of home-grown terrorists: Opening a dialogue. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22, 1-21.

Dawson, L. L. (Forthcoming). Trying to make sense of homegrown terrorist radicalization: The case of the Toronto 18. In L. L. Dawson (Ed.), Religion, Radicalization, and Securitization in Canada and Beyond. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Decker, S. H. (2011). Gangs, terrorism, and radicalization. Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4).

Della Porta, D. (1988). Recruitment process in clandestine political organizations: Italian left-wing terrorism. In B. Klandersmans, H. Kriesi & S. Tarrow (Eds.), International social movement research (Volume 1 ed., pp. 155-169). JAI Press: CT.

Emerson, M., & Roy, O. (2009). Ethno-religious conflict in Europe. Typologies of radicalisation in Europe's Muslim communities. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies.

European Commission’s Expert Group. (2011). Radicalisation processes leading to acts of terrorism. In: R.  Coolsaet (Ed.), Jihadi terrorism and the radicalization challenge: European and American Experiences. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 269-288.

Evans J. (2011). Educating extremism: The failure of Pakistan's education system and the radicalisation of its students. International Journal of the Humanities, 9 (5), 163-168.

Fair, C. C. (2004). Militant recruitment in Pakistan: Implications for al Qaeda and other organizations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27(6), 489-504.

Ferracutti, F. (1982). A socio-psychiatric interpretation of terrorism. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 463, 129-140.

Field, C. (2011). Young British Muslims since 9/11: A composite attitudinal profile. Religion, State and Society, 39(2-3), 159-175.

Florez-Morris, M. (2007). Joining guerrilla groups in Colombia: Individual motivations and processes for entering a violent organization. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (7), 615-634. 

Ganor, B. (2011). An Intifada in Europe? A comparative analysis of radicalization processes among Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza versus Muslim immigrants in Europe. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34(8), 587-599.

Githens-Mazer, J. (2008). Islamic radicalisation among North Africans in Britain. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 10(4), 550-570.

Hairgrove, F., & Mcleod, D. M. (2008). Circles drawing toward high risk activism: The use of Usroh and Halaqa in Islamist radical movements. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31(5), 399-411.

Hegghammer, T. (2006). Terrorist recruitment and radicalization in Saudi Arabia. Middle East Policy, 13 (4), 39-60.

Hegghammer, T. (2010). The rise of Muslim foreign fighters: Islam and the globalization of jihad. International Security, 35 (3), 53-94.

Helfstein, S. (February 2012). Edges of radicalization: Individuals, networks and ideas in violent extremism. West Point, New York: The Combating Terrorism Center at West Point.

Helmus, T. C. (2009). Why and how some people become terrorists. In P. K. Davis, & K. Cragin (Eds.), Social science for counterterrorism: Putting the pieces together. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.

Henne, P. S. (2012). The ancient fire: Religion and suicide terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 24(1), 38-60.

Hoffman, B. (2009). Radicalization and subversion: Al Qaeda and the 7 July 2005 bombings and the 2006 airline bombing plot. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (12), 1100-1116.

Holt, M. (2010). The unlikely terrorist: Women and Islamic resistance in Lebanon and the Palestinian territories. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 3 (3), 365-382.

Huband, M. (2009). Radicalization and recruitment in Europe: The UK case. In M. Ranstorp (Ed.), Understanding violent radicalisation: Terrorist and jihadist movements in Europe . Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Group.

Huffman, A.O. (2012). Homegrown Terrorism in the United States: Comparing radicalization trajectories in Britain and America. Doctoral Dissertation. Proquest/Umi Dissertation Publishing.

Hui, J. Y. (2010). The Internet in Indonesia: Development and impact of radical websites. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(2), 171-191. 

International Crisis Group. (2009). Indonesia radicalisation of the "palembang group".  Jacarta; Brussels: International Crisis Group.

Juergensmeyer, M. (2009). Islam's "neglected duty". In J. Victoroff, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Psychology of Terrorism: Classic and Contemporary Insights (pp. 419-434). New York: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis Group).

Kenney, M. (2011). Hotbed of radicalization or something else?: An ethnographic exploration of a Muslim neighborhood in Ceuta. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (4), 537-559.

Kfir, I. (2008). Islamic radicalism in East Africa: Is there a cause for concern? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31 (9), 829-855.

Khosrokhavar, F. (2006). Terrorism in Europe. In: D. Hamilton (Ed.), Terrorism and international relations (pp. 23-38). Washington D.C.: Center for Transatlantic Relations.

King, M., & Taylor, D. M. (2011). The radicalization of homegrown jihadists: A review of theoretical models and social-psychological evidence. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23, 602-622.

King, M., Noor, H., & Taylor, D. M. (2011). Normative support for terrorism: The attitudes and beliefs of immediate relatives of Jema’ah Islamiyah members. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (5), 402-417. 

Kirby, A. (2007). The London bombers as “Self-starters”: A case study in indigenous radicalization and the emergence of autonomous cliques. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (5), 415-428. 

Kleinmann, S. M. (2012). Radicalization of homegrown Sunni militants in the United States: Comparing converts and non-converts. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35 (4), 278-297.

Kohlmann, E., & Danish Institute for International Studies. (2006). The role of Islamic charities in international terrorist recruitment and financing. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Institute for International Studies.

Kundnani, A. (2008). Islamism and the roots of liberal rage. Race and Class, 50 (2), 40-68.

Lia, B. (2008). Al-Qaida's appeal: Understanding its unique selling points. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (8).

Litvak, M. (2010). “Martyrdom is life”: Jihad and martyrdom in the ideology of Hamas. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (8), 716-734.

Mandaville, P. (2002). Europe's Muslim youth: Dynamics of alienation and integration. In S. Hunter, & H. Malik (Eds.), Islam in Europe and the United States: A comparative perspective (pp. 22-27). Washington, D.C.: Center for Strategic and International Studies.

McAdam, D. (1986). Recruitment to high-risk activism: The case of Summer Freedom. The American Journal of Sociology, 92 (1), 64-90.

McCauley, C., & Moskalenko, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence,  20 (3), 415-433.

Moghadam, A. (2008). Motives for martyrdom: Al-Qaida, Salafi jihad, and the spread of suicide attacks. International Security, 33 (3),  46-78.

Moghaddam, F. M. (2005). A staircase to terrorism: A psychological exploration. American Psychologist, 60 (2), 161-169.

Mukhopadhyay, A. R. (2007). Radical Islamic organisations in Europe: South Asia in their discourse. Strategic Analysis, 31(2), 267-285.

Mullins, S. (2007). Home-grown terrorism: Issues and implications. Perspectives on Terrorism, 1 (3).

Moskalenko, S., & McCauley, C. (2009). Measuring political mobilization: The distinction between activism and radicalism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (2),  239-260.

Nesser, P. (2006). Jihad in Europe: Explorating the motivations for Salafi-jihadi terrorism in Europe post-millennium. (Doctorate, Department of Political Science, University of Oslo). (http://ajnorway.0catch.com/nedlasting/JihadInEurope.pdf)

Nesser, P. (2009). Joining jihadi terrorist cells in Europe - exploring motivational aspects of recruitment and radicalization. In M. Ranstorp (Ed.), Understanding violent radicalisation: Terrorist and jihadist movements in Europe. Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Group.

Neumann, P.R., Stoil, J., & Esfandiary, D. (2008). Perspectives on radicalization and political violence: papers from the first International Conference on Radicalisation and Political Violence. London: ICSR.

Neumann, P.R., & Rogers, B. (2008). Recruitment and mobilization for the Islamist militant movement in Europe. London: International Centre for the study of radicalization and political violence.

O'Rourke, L. A. (2009). What's special about female suicide terrorism? Security Studies, 18(4), 681-718.

Ortiz-Arroyo, D., Larsen, H. L., Zeng, D., Hicks, D. L., Wagner, G., Conway, M., & McInerney, L. (2008). Jihadi video and auto-radicalisation: Evidence from an exploratory YouTube study. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Page, M., Challita, L., & Harris, A. (2011). Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula: Framing narratives and prescriptions. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (2),  150-172.

Pantucci, R. (2011). A typology of lone wolves: Preliminary analysis of lone Islamist terrorists. London, England: International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence.

Porter, L., & Kebbell, M. (2011). Radicalization in Australia: Examining Australia's convicted terrorists. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18 (2), 212-231.

Precht, T. (2007). Home grown terrorism and Islamist radicalisation in Europe: From conversion to terrorism: An assessment of the factors influencing violent Islamist extremism and suggestions for counter radicalisation measures: Research report funded by the Danish Ministry of Justice. Copenhagen: Ministry of Justice.

Rinehart, C. S. (2009). Volatile breeding grounds: The radicalization of the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (11), 953-988.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2009). Radicalization: A guide for the perplexed. Ottawa: RCMP National Security Criminal Investigations.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2011). Démystifier la radicalisation. Ottawa, Ont.: Gendarmerie Royale du Canada.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2011). Les jeunes en ligne et à risque internet un outil de radicalisation. Ottawa, Ont.: Gendarmerie Royale du Canada.

RSIS-Warwick Joint Conference on Radicalisation, Non-Traditional Security and International Economic Cooperation, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies., & University of Warwick. (2009). The RSIS-Warwick joint conference on radicalisation, non-traditional security and international economic cooperation : Report from a conference, 1- 4 November 2009, Singapore.

Ryan, J. (2007). The four p-words of militant Islamist radicalization and recruitment: Persecution, precedent, piety, and perseverance. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30, 985-1010.

Shterin, M., & Yarlykapov, A. (2011). Reconsidering radicalisation and terrorism: The new Muslims movement in Kabardino-Balkaria and its path to violence. Religion State and Society, 39 (2-3), 303-325.

Silber, M. D., & Bhatt, A. (2007). Radicalization in the West: The homegrown threat. New York: NYPD Intelligence Division.

Silber, Mitchell D. The Al Qaeda Factor. Plots Against the West. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2012.

Silke, A. (2008). Holy warriors: Exploring the psychological processes of jihadi radicalization. European Journal of Criminology, 5 (1), 99-123.

Slootman, M. and Tillie, J. (2006). Process of radicalization: Why some Amsterdam Muslims become radicals. Amsterdam: Institute for Migrations and Ethnic Studies, University of Amsterdam.

Speckhard, A., & Akhmedova, L. (2006). The making of a martyr: Chechen suicide terrorism.  Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 29 (5),  429-492.

Sprinzak, E. (2009). The psychopolitical formation of extreme left terrorism in a democracy: The case of the Weathermen. In J. Victoroff, & A. W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Psychology of Terrorism: Classic and Contemporary Insights. New York: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis Group), 317-330.

Stark, R., & Bainbridge, W. S. (1980). Networks of faith: Interpersonal bonds and recruitment to cults and sects. American Journal of Sociology, 85 (6),  1376-1379.

Staun, J. (2008). Radicalisation, recruitment and the EU  counter-radicalisation strategy. The Hague: COT Institute for Safety, Security and Crisis Management.

Stemmann, J. (2006) Middle East Salafism’s influence and the radicalization of Muslim communities in Europe,  MERIA, 10 (3).

Stroink, M. L. (2007). Processes and preconditions underlying terrorism in second-generation immigrants. Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology, 13(3), 109-120.

Taarnby, M. (January 2005). Rekrutterng af islamistiske terrorister i Europa [Recruitment of Islamist Terrorists in Europe]. Danish Ministry of Justice. Available at: http://www.justitsministeriet.dk/488.html

Thompson, R. L. (2011). Radicalization and the use of social media. Journal of Strategic Security, 4 (4).

Trujillo, H. M., Jordán, J., Antonio Gutiérrez, J., & González-Cabrera, J. (2009). Radicalization in prisons? Field research in 25 Spanish prisons. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (4), 558-579.

Venkatraman, A. (2007). Religious basis for Islamic terrorism: The Quran and its interpretations. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (3), 229-248.

Vertigans, S. (2007). Beyond the fringe? Radicalisation within the American far-right. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 8 (3-4), 3-4.

Vertigans, S. (2011). Becoming a ‘terrorist’: Processes into groups. In S. Vertigans, The sociology of terrorism: People, places and processes. New York: Routledge, 68-91.

Vidino, L. (2009). Homegrown jihadist terrorism in the United States: A new and occasional phenomenon? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (1) , 17.

Vidino, L. (2011). The buccinasco pentiti: A unique case study of radicalization. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (3),  398-418.

Vidino, L. (2011). Radicalization, linkage, and diversity: Current trends in terrorism in Europe. (Occasional Paper). Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.

Waldmann, P., Sirseloudi, M., & Malthaner, S. (2009). Where does the radicalisation process lead? Radical community, radical networks and radical subcultures. In M. Ranstorp (Ed.), Understanding violent radicalisation: Terrorist and jihadist movements in Europe. Oxfordshire: Taylor & Francis Group.

Waleed, A. (2007). Liquid terror: The dynamics of homegrown radicalisation. Sydney: Lowy Institute for International Policy.

Warner, R. (September 22, 2005). Workshop on Islamic radicalization in Europe. Virginia: United States Department of State: Bureau of Intelligence and Research.

Wasmund, K. (1986). The political socialization of West German terrorists. In P. H. Merkl (Ed.), Political violence and terror: Motifs and motivations (pp. 191-228). Berkley: University of California Press.

Wiktorowicz, Q. (2005). A genealogy of radical Islam. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 28 (2), 75-97. 

Zimmermann, D., & Rosenau, W. (2009). The radicalization of diasporas and terrorism. Zurich: Center for Security Studies.

 

II. Bibliography on De-Radicalization and Dis-Engagement

Books

Angell, A. & Gurnaratna, R. (2011). Terrorist rehabilitation: The U.S. experience in Iraq. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Ashour, O. (2010). The De-Radicalization of Jihadists: Transforming armed Islamist Movements. London and New York: Routledge.

Ballen, K. (2011). Terrorists in love: The real lives of Islamic radicals. New York: Free Press.

Bartlett, J., & Birdwell, J. (2007). From suspects to citizens: Preventing violent extremism in a big society. London: Demos.

Bjørgo, T., & Horgan, J. (Eds.). (2009). Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abingdon: Routledge.

Connable, B., & Libicki, M. C. (2010). How insurgencies end. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Cronin, A. K. (2009). How terrorism ends: Understanding the decline and demise of terrorist campaigns. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Dienel, H. (2010). Terrorism and the Internet: threats- target groups - deradicalisation strategies. Amsterdam: IOS Press.

El-Said, H., & J. Harrigan (2012). Deradicalising violent extremists: counter-radicalisation and deradicalisation programmes and their impact in Muslim majority states. New York: Routledge.

Fuchs Ebaugh, H.R. (1988). Becoming and Ex: The process of role exit. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Goerzig, C. (2010). Talking to terrorists: Concessions and the renunciation of violence. New York: Routledge.

Gupta, D.K. (2008). Understanding Terrorism and Political Violence: The Life Cycle of Birth, Growth, Transformation and Demise. New York: Routledge.

Horgan, J. (2009). Walking away from terrorism: Accounts of disengagement from radical and extremist movements. New York: Routledge.

Jenkins, B. M., & Godges, J. P. (Eds.). (2011). The long shadow of 9/11: America's response to terrorism. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Jones, S. G., & Libicki, M. C. (2008). How terrorist groups end: Lessons for countering al Qa’ida. Santa Monica, California: RAND Corporation.

Rabasa, A., Pettyjohn, J.J., Ghex, J., & Boucek, C. (2010). Deradicalising Islamist extremists. Santa Monica: RAND.

Rubin, L., Gunaratna, R., & Jerard, A.R. (Eds.). (2011). Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalization: New approaches to counter-terrorism. New York: Routledge.

Silke, A. (Ed.). (2013). Prisons, terrorism and extremism: Critical issues in management, radicalization and reform. New York: Routledge.

Weinberg, L. (2011). The end of terrorism? New York: Routledge.

 

Periodicals, Reports and Book Chapters

Abdul Halim Bin Kader, Taman Bacaan Pemuda Pemudi Melayu Singapura., & Muslim Religious Council of Singapore. (2007). Fighting terrorism: Preventing the radicalisation of youth in a secular and globalised world. Singapore: Taman Bacaan Pemuda Pemudi Melayu Singapura.

Abuza, Z. (2008). The rehabilitation of Jemaah Islamiyah detainees in South East Asia: A preliminary assessment. In: T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement (pp. 193-211). New York: Routledge.

Alonso, R. (2011). Why do terrorists stop? Analyzing why ETA members abandon or continue with terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (9), 696-716.

Arab Thought Forum. (2012). Countering violent extremism: Learning from de-radicalisation programs in some Muslim-majority countries. 15-17 March.

Ashour, O. (2007). Lions tamed? An inquiry into the causes of de-radicalization of armed Islamist movements: The case of the Egyptian Islamic group. Middle East Journal, 61(4), 596-625.

Ashour, O. (2008). De-radicalization of jihad? the impact of Egyptian Islamist Revisionists on Al-Qqeda. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (5).

Ashour, O. (2010). Online de-radicalization? Counter violent extremist narratives: Message, messenger and media strategy. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4 (6).

Ashour, O. (November 2008). Islamist de-radicalization in Algeria: Successes and failures. (Policy Brief No. 21).The Middle East Institute.

Bandura, A. (1998). Mechanisms of moral disengagement. In W. Reich (Ed.), Origins of terrorism: Psychologies, ideologies, theologies, states of mind. Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson Center Press.

Bandura, A. (2004). The role of selective moral disengagement in terrorism and counterterrorism. In F. M. Moghaddam (Ed.), Understanding terrorism: Psychosocial roots, causes and consequences (pp. 121-150). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Barker, E. (1988). Defection from the unification church: Some statistics and distinctions. In D. G. Bromley (Ed.), Falling from the faith: Causes and consequences of religious apostasy. California: Sage Publications.

Barrett, R., & Bokhari, L. (2009). Deradicalization and rehabilitation programmes targeting religious terrorists and extremists in the Muslim world: An overview. In: T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abingdon: Routledge.

Beg, S. and Bokhari, L. (2009).Pakistan: In search of a disengagement strategy. In T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abingdon: Routledge.

Bjørgo, T. (2008). Processes of disengagement from violent groups of the extreme right. In T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement (pp. 30-48). Abingdon: Routledge.

Bjørgo, T. (2011). Dreams and disillusionment: Engagement in and disengagement from militant extremist groups. Crime, Law and Social Change, 55 (4), 277-285.

Boucek, C. (2009). Extremist re-education and rehabilitation in Saudi Arabia. In T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abingdon: Routledge.

Brandon, J. (2011). The decline of jihadist activity in the United Kingdom. CTC Sentinel, October.

Bromley, D. G. (1988). Deprogramming as a mode of exit from new religious movements: The case of the unification movement. In D. G. Bromley (Ed.), Falling from the faith: Causes and consequences of religious apostasy. California: Sage Publications.

Chowdhury-Fink, N., & Heame, E.B. (2008). Beyond terrorism: Deradicalisation and disengagement from violent extremism. New York: International Peace Institute.

Chowdhury-Fink, N., & El-Said, H. (2011). Transforming terrorists: Examining international efforts to address violent extremism. New York: International Peace Institute.

Clubb, G. (2009). Re-evaluating the disengagement process: The case of Fatah. Perspectives on Terrorism,  3(3).

Cohen, J. A. (2009). Diverting the radicalisation track: Promoting alternatives among the Middle East's youths. Policy Review, no. 154.

Connor, K. (2005). 'Islamism' in the West? The life-span on the al-Muhajiroun in the United Kingdom. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 25 (1), 117-133.

Cronin, A. K. (2006). How al-Qaida ends: The decline and demise of terrorist groups. International Security, 31 (1), 7-48.

De Graaf, B., & Malkki, L. (2010). Killing it softly? Explaining the early demise of left-wing terrorism in the Netherlands. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (4), 623-640.

Decker, S. H., & Lauritsen, J. L. (2001). Leaving the gang. In C. R. Huff (Ed.), Gangs in America (3rd ed., pp. 51-67). Thousand Oaks, California: Sage Publications.

Della Porta, D. (2008). Leaving underground organizations: A sociological analysis of the Italian case. In: T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abington: Routledge (pp. 66-87).

Della Porta, D., & LaFree, G. (2012). Processes of radicalization and de-radicalization. International Journal of Conflict and Violence, 6 (1), 4-10.

Demant, F., Slootman, M., Buijs, F. J., & Tille, J. (2008). Decline and disengagement. An analysis of processes of deradicalisation. Amsterdam: IMES Report Series, 157-182.

Edwards, A. (2009). Abandoning armed resistance? The Ulster volunteer force as a case study of strategic terrorism in Northern Ireland. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32(2), 146-166.

Florez-Morris, M. (2010). Why some Colombian guerrilla members stayed in the movement until demobilization: A micro-sociological case study of factors that influenced members' commitment to three former rebel organizations: M-19, EPL, and CRS. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (2), 216-241. 

Garfinkel, R. (2007). Personal transformations: Moving from violence to peace. United States Institute of Peace Special Report, 186, April.

Global Counterterrorism Forum. (2012)  Rome Memorandum on Good Practices for Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Violent Extremist Offenders.  Rome: GCTF.

Gunaratna, R., & Ali, M. B. (2009). De-radicalization initiatives in Egypt: A preliminary insight. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (4), 277-291.

Horgan, J. (2008). Deradicalization or disengagement? Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (4).

Horgan, J. (2009). Individual disengagement: A psychological analysis. In T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement. Abingdon: Routledge.

Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists? Challenges in assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (2), 267-291.

Horgan, J. & Taylor, M. (2010). Disengagement, de-radicalisation and the arc of terrorism: Future directions for research. In: R.  Coolsaet (Ed.). Jihadi terrorism and the radicalisation challenge: European and American experiences. Farnham: Ashgate.

Horgan, J., & Braddock, K. (2011). Evaluating the effectiveness of de-radicalisation programs: Towards a scientific approach to terrorism risk reduction. In: S.  Canna (Ed.), Countering violent extremism: Scientific methods & strategies. Washington, DC: NSI.

Horgan, J. (2012). Discussion point: The end of radicalization? National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). Available at: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/announcements/announcement.asp?id=416

Horgan, J., & Altier, M.B. (2012). The future of terrorist de-radicalisation programs. Conflict & Security, Summer/Fall.

Institute for Strategic Dialogue. (2012). Tackling extremism: De-radicalisation and disengagement. Copenhagen: Conference Report, 8-9 May.

International Crisis Group. (2007). “Deradicalization” and Indonesian Prisons. Asia Report No 142, 19, November.

Jacobson, M. (2009). Terrorist drop-outs: One way of promoting a counter-narrative. Perspectives on Terrorism, 3 (2).

Kruglanski, A.W., Gelfand, M., & Gunaratna, G. (2010). Detainee deradicalisation: A challenge for psychological science. Observer (Assoc. for Psychological Science), 23 (1).

McAuley, J. W., Tonge, J., & Shirlow, P. (2010). Conflict, transformation, and former loyalist paramilitary prisoners in Northern Ireland. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (1), 22-40.

Mitchell, C. (2008). The limits of legitimacy: Former loyalist combatants and peace-building in Northern Ireland. Irish Political Studies, 23 (1), 1-19.

Moghadam, A. (2012). Failure and disengagement in the Red Army Faction. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35 (2), 156-181. 

Moghaddam, F.M. (2009). De-radicalisation and the staircase from terrorism. In Canter, D. (Ed.), The faces of terrorism: Multidisciplinary perspectives. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Neumann, P. R. (2010). Prisons and terrorism radicalisation and de-radicalisation in 15 countries. London, England: ICSR, King's College London.

Noricks, D. M. E. (2009). Disengagement and deradicalization: Processes and programs. In P. K. Davis, & K. Cragin (Eds.), Social science for counterterrorism: Putting the pieces together. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.

Pluchinsky, D. A. (2008). Global jihadist recidivism: A red flag. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 32 (3),  182-200.

Porch, D., & Rasmussen, M. J. (2008). Demobilization of paramilitaries in Colombia: Transformation or transition? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 3 1(6), 520-540.

Porges, M. L. (2010). Deradicalisation, the Yemeni way. Survival, 52 (2), 27-33.

Porges, M. L. (2010). The Saudi Deradicalisation  Experiment. US Council on Foreign Relations. Expert Brief, 22 January; available at httP:///www.cfr.org/publication/21292/saudi_deradicalisation _experiment.html

Rashwan, D. (2008). The renunciation of violence by Egyptian Jihadi organizations. In: T. Bjørgo, & J. Horgan (Eds.), Leaving terrorism behind: Individual and collective disengagement . Abington: 2009 (pp. 113-131).

Reinares, F. (2011). Exit from terrorism: A qualitative empirical study on disengagement and deradicalization among members of ETA. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (5), 780-803.

Rekawek, K. E. (2008). How ‘terrorism’ does not end: The case of the official Irish Republican Army. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1(3), 359-376.

Ross, J. I., & Gurr, T. R. (1989). Why terrorism subsides: A comparative study of Canada and the United States. Comparative Politics, 21 (4), 405-426.

Smith, D. (2011). The de-radicalisation of the modern extremist. Headmark, (141), 9-11.

Stracke, N. (2007). Arab prisons: A place for dialogue and reform. Perspectives on Terrorism, 1 (4).

Taylor, M. & Horgan, J. (2006). Conceptual framework for addressing psychological process in the  development of the terrorist. Terrorism and Political Violence, 18 (3),  585-601.

Vertigans, S. (2011). The end game: stopping and leaving terrorism. In S. Vertigans, The sociology of terrorism: People, places and processes. New York: Routledge, 136-157.

Waldmann, P. (2011). How terrorism ceases: The Tupamaros in Uruguay. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34  (9), 717-731.

 
III. Bibliography on Counter-Radicalization and Countering Violent Extremism

Books

Abou el Fadl, K. (2005). The great theft: Wrestling Islam from the extremists. New York: HarperCollins.

Aboul-Enein, Y. H. (2010). Militant Islamist ideology: Understanding the global threat. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press.

Art, R. J., & Richardson, L. (Eds.). (2007). Democracy and counterterrorism: Lessons from the past. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.

Baker, S. (2010). Skating on stilts: Why we aren't stopping tomorrow's terrorism. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press.

Bloom, M. (2005). Dying to kill: The allure of suicide terror. New York: Columbia University Press.

Byman, D. (2008). The five front war: The better way to fight global jihad. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Byman, D. (2011). A high price: The triumphs and failures of Israeli counterterrorism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Canna, S. (ED.) (2011). Countering violent extremism: Scientific methods & strategies. Washington, DC: NSI.

Clutterbuck, L., & Warnes, R. (2011). Exploring patterns of behaviour in violent jihadist terrorists: an analysis of six significant terrorist conspiracies in the UK. . Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Crelinsten, R. (2009). Counterterrorism. Cambridge: Polity.

De Graaf, B. (2011). Evaluating counterterrorism performance: A comparative study. New York: Routledge.

Dekmejian, R. H. (2007). Spectrum of terror. Washington: CQ Press.

Dzikansky, M., Kleiman, G., & Slater, R. (2011). Terrorist suicide bombings: Attack interdiction, mitigation, and response. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

Faure, G. O., & Zartman, I. W. (Eds.). (2010). Negotiating with terrorists: Strategy, tactics, and politics. New York: Routledge.

Forest, J. J. F. (Ed.). (2007). Countering terrorism and insurgency in the 21st century: International perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger Security.

Ganor, B. (2007). The counter-terrorism puzzle: A guide for decision makers. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.

Goodall Jr, H. L. (2010). Counter-narrative: How progressive academics can challenge extremists and promote social justice. Walnut Creek, CA: Left Coast Press.

Guiora, A. N. (2008). Fundamentals of counterterrorism. Austin, TX: Wolters Kluwer.

Gunaratna, R., Jerard, J., & Rubin, L. (2011). Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalisation: new approaches to counter-terrorism. New York: Routledge.

Habeck, M. (2006). Knowing the enemy: Jihadist ideology and the war on terror. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Inbar, E. & Frish, H. (2008). Radical Islam and international security: Challenges and responses. New York: Routledge.

Kassimeris, G. (2011). Why Greek terrorists give up: Analyzing individual exit from the revolutionary organization 17 November. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (7), 556-571.

Kepel, G. (2004). The war for Muslim minds: Islam and the West. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press.

Khalil, L. (2011). US counter-radicalisation strategy: the ideological challenge. Barton, A.C.T.: Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

Khosrokhavar, F. (1997). L'islam des jeunes. Paris: Flammarion.

Khosrokhavar, F. (2005). Suicide bombers: Allah's new martyrs. London: Pluto Press.

Paul, C. (2010). Victory has a thousand fathers: Sources of success in counterinsurgency. Santa Monica, CA: RAND.

Renner, J., & Spencer, A. (Eds.). (2012). Reconciliation after terrorism: Strategy, possibility or absurdity? New York: Routledge.

Roach, K. (2011). The 9/11 effect: Comparative counter-terrorism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rohan Gunaratna. (2011). Terrorist rehabilitation and counter-radicalisation. London & New York: Routledge.

Silke, A. (Ed.). (2011). The psychology of counter-terrorism. New York: Routledge.

Sutton, R., & Stuart, H. (2012). Challenging extremists: Practical frameworks for our universities. London: The Henry Jackson Society.

Thomas, Paul. (2012) Responding to the Threat of Violent Extremism.  London: BloomsburyAcademic.

 

Periodicals, Reports and Book chapters

Abadie, A. (2006). Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism. The American Economic Review, 96(2), 50-56.

Abrahms, M. (2007). Why democracies make superior counter-terrorists. Security Studies, 16 (2), 223-253.

Abrahms, M. (2008). What terrorists really want: Terrorist motives and counterterrorism strategy. International Security, 32 (4), 78-105.

Al-Khalifah, A. (2008). Suspects’ families and the relationship with terrorism and extremism in Saudi society. Riyadh: Imam Mohammed University.

Aydinli, E., & Ozcan, N. A. (2011). The conflict resolution and counterterrorism dilemma: Turkey faces its Kurdish question. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (3), 438-457.

Azarva, J. (2009). Is U.S. detention policy in Iraq working? Middle East Quarterly, 16 (1), 5-14.

Baines, P. R., O'Shaughnessy, N. J., Moloney, K., Richards, B., Butler, S., & Gill, M. (2010). The dark side of political marketing: Islamist propaganda, reversal theory and British Muslims. European Journal of Marketing, 44 (3-4), 478-495.

Bakashmar, M. (2008). Winning the battles, losing the war? An assessment of counterterrorism in Malaysia. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20 (4), 480-497.

Bakker, E., & de Graaf, B. (2011). Preventing lone wolf terrorism: Some CT approaches addressed. Perspectives on Terrorism, 5 (5-6).

Bartlett, A. (2011). Preventing violent extremism and "not in my name": Theatrical representation, artistic responsibility and shared vulnerability. Research in Drama Education, 16 (2), 173-195.

Benard, C. (2005). A future for the young: Options for helping Middle Eastern youth escape the trap of radicalization. (No. WR-354). Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation.

Behr, H., & Berger, L. (2009). The challenge of talking about terrorism: The EU and the Arab debate on the causes of Islamist terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21 (4), 539-557.

Bergin, A. (2009). Countering Radicalisation in Southeast Asia : An RSIS-ASPI joint report. Canberra: ASPI.

Bergin, A., Jones, D. M., Ungerer, C. J., & Australian Strategic Policy Institute. (2007). Beyond belief : Islamism, radicalisation and the counter-terrorism response. [Barton, A.C.T.]: Australian Strategic Policy Institute.

Bernard, F. (2010). Counterterrorism and an imaginative right-based approach. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (1), 23-26. 

Berrebi, C. (2007). Evidence about the link between education, poverty and terrorism among Palestinians. Peace Economics, Peace Science and Public Policy, 13(1).

Blaydes, L., & Rubin, L. (2008). Ideological reorientation and counterterrorism: Confronting militant Islam in Egypt. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20 (4), 461-479. 

Blomberg, S. B., Hess, G. D., & Weerapana, A. (2004). An economic model of terrorism. Conflict Management and Peace Studies, 21, 17-28.

Burki, S. K. (2011). Haram or halal? Islamists' use of suicide attacks as "jihad". Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (4), 582-601.

Boucek, C. (September 2008). Saudi Arabia's "soft" counterterrorism strategy: Prevention, rehabilitation, and aftercare. (No. 97) . Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace.

Briggs, R. (2010). Community engagement for counterterrorism: Lessons from the United Kingdom. International Affairs, 86 (4), 971-981.

Briggs, R. (2010). Hearts and minds and votes: The role of democratic participation in
countering terrorism. Democratization, 17 (2), 272-285.

Carpenter, J. S., Jacobson, M., & Levitt, M. (March 2009). Rewriting the narrative: An integrated strategy for counterradicalization. Washington, D.C.: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.

Checkel, J. T. (2005). International institutions and socialization in Europe: Introduction and framework. International Organization, 59 (4), 801-826.

Chenoweth, E., Miller, N., McClellan, E., Frisch, H., Staniland, P., & Abrahms, M. B. (2009). What makes terrorists tick? International Security, 33 (4), 180-202.

Cheong, P. H., & Halverson, J. R. (2010). Youths in violent extremist discourse: Mediated identifications and interventions. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33 (12), 1104-1123.

Collins, S. D. (2004). Dissuading state support of terrorism: Strikes or sanctions? (an analysis of dissuasion measures employed against Libya). Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 27 (1), 1-18.

Cragin, K., & Chalk, P. (January 9). Terrorism and development: Using social and economic development to inhibit a resurgence of terrorism. 2009. Retrieved from http://www.rand.org/pubs/monograph_reports/MR1630

Cunningham, K. J. (2007). Countering female terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (2), 113 - 129. 

Davies, L. (2009). Educating against extremism: Towards a critical politicisation of young people. International Review of Education, 55 (2-3).

Davis, P. K., & Jenkins, B. M. (2004). A system approach to deterring and influencing terrorists. Journal of Conflict Management and Peace Science, 21(1), 3-15.

Demant, F., & De Graaf, B. (2010). How to counter radical narratives: Dutch deradicalisation policy in the case of Moluccan and Islamic radicals. Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 33 (5), 408-428.

Dutter, L. E. (2012). Why don't dogs bark (or bomb) in the night? Explaining the non-development of political violence or terrorism: The case of Quebec separatism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35 (1), 59-75.

Eder, F. (2011). The European Union's counter-terrorism policy towards the Maghreb: Trapped between democratisation, economic interests and the fear of destabilisation. European Security, 20 (3), 431-451.

Evidence to the UK parliamentary select committee inquiry on preventing violent extremism. (2010). Race and Class, 51 (3), 73-80.

Fair, C. C., & Shepherd, B. (2006). Who supports terrorism? Evidence from fourteen Muslim countries. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (1), 51-74.

Farwell, J. P. (2011). Jihadi video in the ‘War of ideas’. Survival, 52(6), 127-150.

Fayyaz, S. (2008). Responding to terrorism: Pakistan's anti-terrorism laws. Perspectives on Terrorism, 2 (6).

Feldmann, A. E., & Perala, M. (Summer 2004). Reassessing the causes of nongovernmental terrorism in Latin America. Latin American Politics and Society, 46 (2), 101-132.

Feldmann, A. E., & Hinojosa, V. J. (2009). Terrorism in Colombia: Logic and sources of a multidimensional and ubiquitous phenomenon. Terrorism and Political Violence, 21(1), 42-61.

Foster, M. W., & Butler, J. W. (2008). Cancer, HIV, and terrorism: Translating public health models for prevention and control to counter-terrorism. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 1 (1), 81-94. 

Garfield, A. (Fall 2007). The U.S. counter-propaganda failure in Iraq. The Middle East Quarterly.

Gregg, H. S. (2010). Fighting the jihad of the pen: Countering revolutionary Islam’s ideology. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (2), 292-314.

Gregg, H. S. (2009). Fighting cosmic warriors: Lessons from the first seven years of the global war on terror. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (3), 188-208. 

Gurr, T. R. (2003). Terrorism in democracies: When it occurs, why it fails. In C. W. Kegley Jr (Ed.), The new global terrorism: Characteristics, causes, controls . Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall.

Grynkewich, A. G. (2008). Welfare as warfare: How violent non-state groups use social services to attack the state. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 31 (4), 350-370.

Haddad, S. (2006). The origins of popular support for Lebanon's Hezbollah. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (1), 21-34.

Hafez, M. M., & Hatfield, J. M. (2006). Do targeted assassinations work? A multivariate analysis of Israel's controversial tactic during al-Aqsa Uprising. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(4), 359 - 382.

Halafoff, A., & Wright-Neville, D. (2009). A missing peace? The role of religious actors in countering terrorism. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 32 (11), 921-932.

Hassan, M. H. (2006). Key considerations in counter-ideological work against terrorist ideology. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29 (6), 531-558.

Hassan, M. H. (2007). Singapore's Muslim community-based initiatives against JI. Perspectives on Terrorism, 1 (5).

Heath-Kelly, C. (2012). Counter-terrorism and the counterfactual: Producing the ‘Radicalisation’ discourse and the UK PREVENT strategy. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, (3).

HM Government. (2009). Pursue, prevent, protect, prepare: The United Kingdom’s strategy for countering international terrorism. London.

International Centre for the Study of Radicalisation and Political Violence. (2009). Countering online radicalisation a strategy for action. London, England: ICSR, King's College London.

Johnston, P. B. (2012). Does decapitation work?: Assessing the effectiveness of leadership targeting in counterinsurgency campaigns. International Security, 36 (4), 47-79.

Jones, S. G. (2007). Fighting networked terrorist groups: Lessons from Israel. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 30 (4), 281-302.

Jones, S.G. (2008). The rise of Afghanistan's insurgency: State failure and jihad. International Security, 32 (4) , 7-40.

Jordan, J. (2009). When heads roll: Assessing the effectiveness of leadership decapitation. Security Studies, 18(4), 719-755.

Kaunert, C., & Léonard, S. (2011). EU counterterrorism and the European neighbourhood policy: An appraisal of the southern dimension. Terrorism and Political Violence, 23 (2), 286-309.

Kaunert, C. (2009). The external dimension of EU counter-terrorism relations: Competences, interests, and institutions. Terrorism and Political Violence, 22 (1), 41-61.

Kjok, A., Hegghammer, T., Hansen, A., & Knudson, J.K. (2002). Restoring peace or provoking terrorism? Exploring the links between multilateral military intervention and international terrorism. Oslo: Forsvarets Forskninginstitutt.

Kundnani, A. (2009). Spooked! How not to prevent violent extremism. London: Institute of Race Relations.

Kurtulus, E. N. (2012). The new counterterrorism: Contemporary counterterrorism trends in the United States and Israel. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 35 (1), 37-58.

Lakhani S. (2012). Preventing violent extremism: Perceptions of policy from grassroots and communities. Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, 51(2), 190-206.

Lambert, R. (2008). Empowering Salafis and Islamists against al-Qaeda: A London counterterrorism case study. Political Science and Politics, 41(1), 31-35.

Lambert, R. (2008). Salafi and Islamist Londoners: Stigmatised minority faith communities countering al-Qaida. Crime, Law and Social Change, 50 (1-2), 73-89.

Lambert, R. (2011). Competing counter-radicalisation models.  In Coolsaet, R. (Ed.), Jihadi Terrorism and the Radicalisation Challenge in Europe. Aldershot, England; Burlington, VT: Ashgate.

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N.B.: With thanks to Eric Price as this bibliography has partially borrowed from and expanded upon Eric Price and Alex Schmid’s “Selected Literature on Radicalisation and De-Radicalisation: Monographs, Edited Volumes, Grey Literature and Prime Articles Published since 1970”. Perspectives on Terrorism, 4 (2), pp. 58-76. 

About the Compilers: David C. Hofmann is a doctoral student in Sociology and Legal Studies at the University of Waterloo, Canada. His research interests include terrorist radicalization and charismatic authority. He is also a Research Assistant for the Terrorism Research Initiative. He can be reached at [email protected].; Alex P. Schmid is Editor of Perspectives on Terrorism and a Visiting Research Fellow at the International Centre for Counterterrorism (ICCT) in The Hague. He can be reached at [email protected] .



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