Untitled Document

Boko Haram Attacks in Nigeria and Neighbouring Countries: A Chronology of Attacks

by Ioannis Mantzikos, TRI Research Assistant

Introduction [1]

Boko Haram’s insurgency which pitted neighbour against neighbour, cost more than 4,000 lives, displaced close to half a million people, destroyed hundreds of schools and government buildings and devastated an already ravaged economy in the north-east of Nigeria, one of the country’s poorest regions.Within less than five years (2010 – 2014) the Nigerian Islamist terrorists organization Boko Haram (BH) has evolved into the most lethal of all salafist jihadist organisations. Originally directing its attacks mainly at security forces and government officials, BH’s campaign has expanded to include attacks on Christians, critical Muslim clerics, traditional leaders, suspected collaborators, UN offices, bars and girl schools. Its campaign of terrorism, ranges from targeting students at state (secular) schools to health workers involved in polio vaccination campaigns.

In the first half of 2014 BH even surpassed the Islamic State in Iraq in terms of lethality, according to statistics compiled by the Intel Center.[2] On Tuesday, April 15, 2014, Boko Haram attacked a girls’ school in Chibok, Borno state, in northern Nigeria, abducting between 250-300 young girls. Boko Haram’s leader, Abubakar Shekau, released a video on May 5, threatening to sell the girls as “wives” while also expressing his ideological opposition to the idea of educating girls. The abduction of girls and subsequent developments have prompted several nations to send logistical support teamswhile the Nigerian government offered a $300,000 reward for information leading to the girls’ rescue. On May 5 2014, Boko Haram took attacked the unprotected town of Gamboru Ngala, reportedly killing up to 300 civilians. These are just two incidents in a long row listed below.

The State Department’s annual report on terrorism around the globe, issued in early 2014, estimated that the group’s membership ranges from “the hundreds to a few thousand.” The report warned that “the number and sophistication of BH’s attacks” are a source of concern. Increasingly attacking police and military targets, Boko Haram’s campaign of terrorism has turned into an insurgency that has also spilled over into neighbouring Cameroon, Chad and Niger which serve as sanctuaries but have also become conflict zones.[3]

Table Political Violence in the first half of 2014: the ten most lethal groups

Rank

Terrorist/Rebel Group

Killed

Injured

1

Boko Haram

2,924

268

2

Islamic State (IS)

1,459

517

3

al-Shabaab

1,136

671

4

al-Huthi Rebels

584

163

5

al-Qaeda Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)

509

184

6

Taliban

384

278

7

Jabhat al-Nusrah

298

252

8

Donetsk People's Republic (DPR)

295

0

9

Islamic Front

247

68

10

Seleke

229

107

This sudden growth of Boko Haram is even more astounding, given the fact that between 2003 and 2009 only few incidents have been recorded. To chronicle this rapid rise, TRI has compiled a list of incidents, combining data from TRI’s own records with those of a number of other databases and chronologies, such as incidents registered by the University of Maryland’s Global Terrorism Database (START) and Emilie Ofetal’s Timeline.[4] While our listing seeks to be comprehensive, it is likely that due to censorship and other factors a number of attacks have escaped our attention. This chronology is primarily meant as a Resource for researchers focusing on Nigeria.

Chronology of Attacks 2003 – mid-2014

Pre-2010

Boko Haram attacks focused mainly on police stations, not directly targeting civilians. Some of their major attacks are listed here:

23-31December 2003 – raid on government installations in the towns of Kanamma and Geidam (both in Yobo state) by about 200 gunmen by the Nigerian Taliban in which police weapons and vehicles were seized and policemen killed. Many “Taliban” were killed in the counter-attack.

January 2004 – attempted attack on Damboa police station.

June 2004 – attempted prison break of arrested members in Damaturu (capital of Yobe) in which four Boko Hartam members were killed.

23 September 2004 – several dozen  “Followers of the Prophet” (Al-Sunna Wal Jamma), also called “Nigerian Taliban”, including Aminu Tashen Ilimi, attacked police patrols and stations in Gwoza and Bama in which four policemen and two civilians were killed. 28 of the attackers were killed while others fled over the border into Cameroon. Remnant of this militant group are considered by some observers as forming the nucleus of what became Boko Haram[5].

10 October 2004 – attack on a convoy of cars transporting policemen near Lake Chad in the town of Kala-Balge in which three officers were killed and 12 policemen captured. They were shot later.

26 – 30 July 2009 – Heavy-handed police handling of a public order issue led to the hospitalization of 17 members of Boko Haram. Angered members of Boko Haram attacked  police stations in Maiduguri & Bauchi.  In these and other confrontations 22 militants, two police officers, one prison officer and at least 50 civilians died according to one account (others provide higher figures). The government ordered the military to assist the overwhelmed local police and at the end of the day more than 800 people were killed, many of them were innocent rather than members of Boko Haram. Other Boko Haram members were arrested, including its the leader of Boko Haram, Mohammed Yusuf. Together with some other members of Boko Haram he was publicly executed outside a police station on 30 July;[6] 28 policemen and five prison warders as well as an undisclosed number of soldiers were also killed in the rioting that occurred in these five days.

 

2010

September 5, 2010 – Boko Haram members riding motorcycles, kill a retired ASP cop, Zannah Kyari. They also shoot another Bulama a village warden in Konduga Lga, in the leg, leaving the victim for dead.

September 7, 2010 – attack on the Bauchi jail, freeing some 700 inmates including about 100 members of Boko Haram.[7]

September 21, 2010-Killings. Gunmen on motorcycles killed a local chief and a trader in Maiduguri.

October 6, 2010-Assassination. The national vice-chairman of the All Nigerian Peoples Party (ANPP), Awana Ali Ngala, was killed in his house in Maiduguri. While gunmen riding motorcycles also fired upon the housed of Ali Modu, the speaker of the Borno State House of Assembly, killing one policeman.

October 7, 2010-Assassination. Mamman Zannah, a senior staff of Bama Local Council is killed by men supposed to belong to Boko Haram organisation.

October 9, 2010-Assassination. Sheik Bashir Mustapha, an Islamic scholar was assassinated in his home and Bashir Kashara, a Wahhabi figure was killed in a separate incident.

October 10, 2010-Assassination. A 10 year-old boy, alimajiri pupil of a traditional Islamic school is beheaded, some parts of his body removed.

October 13, 2010-Assassination.  Boko Haram members kill a policeman attached to the private residence of Bauchi State Commissioner for Special

October 20, 2010-Assassination. Suspected Boko Haram militia kills a police inspector, Kashim Bukar by shooting him in the chest.

October 23, 2010-Assassination. Boko Haram members attempt to set a police station ablaze but are overpowered by the police. One member of the sect is killed.

November 13, 2010-Assassination. Two unknown gunmen riding on a motorcycle shoot and kill a soldier, Bashir Mohammed, attached to 231 Battalion of the Nigerian Army Biu.

November 19, 2010-Assassination. Suspected Boko Haram members open fire in a mosque during Juam'at prayer. Three persons are killed in the process.

November 24, 2010-Assassination. Suspected Boko Haram members kill a policeman (Ramat Mohammat) and a soldier (Salisu Jibrin) on their way home after duty .

December 4, 2010-Attacks Nigerian army clashes with members of Boko Haram Islamist sect. Two of their members and three civilians die in the crossfire.

December 24, 2010-Bombing The capital city of Abuja is rocked by a bomb on Yuletide. 11 persons confirmed dead and 30 injured.

December 24, 2010-Bombing Nine explosions attacks rock the town of Jos on Christmas Eve, killing at least 80 persons and injuring many

December 28, 2010-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram Islamic fundamentalists fire shots at the Teaching Hospital, killing a policeman on duty and two civilians.

December 29, 2010-Attacks. Shootings against political party All Nigeria People’s Party in Maiduguri in which eight people were killed.

December 29, 2010-Attacks. Members of radical Islamic group Boko Haram attack a police patrol team in Maiduguri, killing seven to eight persons; eight people are wounded.

December 29, 2010-Bombing. A bomb launhed by Islamic Sect Boko Haram at a relaxation spot in Abuja kills four persons, injures many.

2011

January 2011- series of bombings targeting Christian churches.

January 3, 2011- Assassination. Boko Haram members in Maiduguri kill a policeman, Corporal James, trailed by the two men who operate with motorcycles.

January 9, 2011- Assassination. Suspected Boko Haram members kill a policeman constable, Amos Tangurda, attached to COCIN Church, injuring the watchman, Mallam Akilahyel Solomon.

January 19, 2011- Assassination. Deeper Life Christian Church pastor and three of his neighbours are killed by fundamentalists.

January 23, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram members operating on motorcycles attack and kill a soldier on his way to visit a relation in Borno.

January 26, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram members kill a policeman guarding a voter registration site in Bauchi.

January 27, 2011-Assassination Gunmen suspected to belong to Islamist sect Boko Haram kill a policeman guarding voter registration equipment in Gusau, Zamfara State.

January 28, 2011-Assassination of Modu Fannami Godio, secular opposition figure and gubernatorial candidate from the All Nigeria Peoples Party (ANPP). Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the assassination.

January 30, 2011-Two muslim extremists believed to belong to Boko Haram sect are killed as they attack policemen guarding a dam in Maiduguri.

February 2, 2011-Attacks. Boko Haram members kill a deputy superintendant of police and his six-year-old girl.

February 13, 2011 During a criminal operation, Boko Haram organisation kills one of their members in error.

February 20, 2011 Five Boko Haram suspects die during a gunfight with the police. One of the financiers is killed too.

February 24, 2011 A police Inspector is gunshot by two suspected Boko Haram members operating on a motorcycle in Maiduguri.

February 28, 2011 Boko Haram members invade the private residence of a Divisional Police Officer, Mustapha Sandamu and killed two in Kaduna

March 7, 2011-Attacks. armed men killed more than 200 men, women and children whn Boko Haram attacked the villages of Dogo Nachawa, Zot and Tatsat.

March 12, 2011-Assassination of non-violent preacher Ahmad Abdullahi Bolori for criticizing violent groups.

March 26, 2011-Assassination. Boko Haram attack soldiers on routine patrol; One soldier is killed, 16 others injured.

March 27, 2011-Assassination. Boko Haram sect member kill an ANPP chieftain, Alhaji Modu Gana Makanike, the Gwange II Ward Chairman of ANPP

March 29, 2011-Planned attack. Nigerian police uncovered a Boko Haram plot to bomb an ANPP election rally in Maiduguri.

April 4, 2011. Suspected members of the extremist Islamist sect, Boko Haram, kill two young men, Babaji (24) and Sadi. Seven children are also injured. This seems to be a revengeful mission:  on 2 April, after the aborted parliamentary elections, Babaji has disarmed gunmen about to kill a local politician in Budum quarters.

April 8, 2011 , Explosion. A bomb explosion claims the life of one of the bombers, Yahaya injuring the other, Mohamed, Al-Qaeda network (Boko Haram) is suspected. The suspects expected to explode four bombs.

April 9, 2011- Attack. Bombs exploded at two polling stations in Maiduguri. At least ten people were injured at the Unguwar Doki polling center, while there were six casualties at the Independent National Electoral Coalition polling center.341 Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

April 15, 2011-Attack. Two suspected Boko Haram gunmen in Maiduguri attack a residential area, kill two soldiers before being chased by JTF. Two civilians also die, including a child. Five other persons, including two soldiers, are injured.

April 16, 2011-Attack. A police inspector, Elias Dawa, is killed in a gunduel by a Boko Haram member

April 16, 2011-Attack. Arrests. Two bombs exploded in Kaduna. Eight people were injured. The police arrested four foreigners (at least two of them from Niger) and a Nigerian accomplice. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

April 21, 2011-Attack. A bomb killed one person in Kaduna. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

April 22, 2011-Arrests. A bomb-making factory uncovered in Kaduna. Police said eight people were arrested, three of whom had been critically injured during the blast on April 21, 2011.

April 24, 2011-Attack. Four bombs were detonated in Maiduguri. Three people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

April 30, 2011-Attack. In Maiduguri Islamic Sect Boko Haram members kill a prison warder and a trader in front of his shop.

May 5, 2011-Assassination Radical Islamic Sect Boko Haram members in Maiduguri kill two prison warders.

May 11, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram gunmen kill the Borno State Chairman NURTW, Ibrahim Dudu Gobe and wound his son.

May 11, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram gunmen kill a cleric, Sheikh Goni Tijjani, who was close to the state governor's father, Galadima Modu Sheriff.

May 11, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram gunmen kill a cleric, Mallam Alhaji Abur, who was a critic of the Boko Haram Islamic sect.

May 12, 2011-Assassination of political figures Abba Anas bin ‘Umar & Modu Fannami Godio.

May 17, 2011-Attack Gunmen suspected to be Boko Haram members ambush a policeman in  a local mosque.

May 18, 2011-Attack on Maiduguri police station, about 10 people killed.

May 22, 2011- Explosion. Boko Haram kill three Peace Corps member as an home-made bomb explodes in Bwari, Abuja.

May 27, 2011- Attack. Simultaneous gun and bomb attacks by a group of around 70 gunmen on a police station, a police barracks and a bank in Damboa, Borno State. Eight people were killed, including four policemen. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

May 30, 2011-Attack. Mammy Market bombing in Bauchi, killing 13 and injuring 40 people inside the 33 Artillery Brigade barracks.

May 30, 2011-Attack. 13 people were killed and 33 wounded in an attack on a beer garden in a military barracks complex in Bauchi.

June 6, 2011-Assassination. Muslim cleric Ibrahim Birkuti, who was critical of Boko Haram. He was shot dead by two gunmen on motorcycles outside his house in Biu, 200 km from Maiduguri. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the assassination.

June 7, 2011-Attacks. On a church and two police posts in Maiduguri. At least 14 people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

June 11, 2011-Failed attack. A bomb was found by the police at Gonin Gora market in Kaduna. It is not known who planted the bomb

June 12, 2011-Attack. Four people were killed in a Boko Haram attack on an unregistered drinking place in a suburb of Maiduguri.- Statement. Boko Haram released a list of conditions to be met before they would enter into a dialogue with the government.

June 13, 2011- Failed attack. A bomb was found at the NNPC staff quarters at Narayi, Kaduna. It is not known who planted the bomb.

June 16,  2011 –Suicide attack on police General Headquarters in Abuja killed eight people (two, according to another account) and seventy vehicles were damaged or burnt).

June 19, 2011 Boko Haram militants attack a relaxation centre, killing two persons. Three of the injured persons later die. A security personnel driving his private car was also shot dead by suspected Boko Haram members.

26 June 2011Attack  Suspected Boko Haram members riding on motorcycles fire several Kalashnikov gunshots at  people playing card under a tree. A nurse is killed on the spot, four others are injured. Also Armed men suspected to be members of Boko Haram sect attack a police station and a commercial bank with arms and explosives. However, the force PRO, Olushola Amore, a deputy commissioner of police, reports that the bank attack was a purely robbery incident. Some of the money stolen is distributed to people outside. Six policemen including the Divisional Crime Officer and two civilian are killed.

26 June 2011Attack on beer garden in Maiduguri, killing 25 people and injuring 12 more.

June 27, 2011Attack 10 Boko Haram members attack and kill three Customs officers during a meeting.

July 2, 2011-Attack. Boko Haram kill three persons, injure a soldier.

July 3, 2011-Attack. An explosion at a bar close to police barracks in Maiduguri killed at least 10 people.

July 5, 2011- Attack. Boko Haram kill two policemen, a soldier, a customs officer and three civilians. Police also kill 3 Boko Haram  members in their hideouts.

July 9, 2011 - A combined police and military task force raid against Boko Haram group makes 30 dead including a little boy.

July 10, 2011- Bombing of the All Christian Fellowship Church in Suleja, Niger State, killing 3 people and wounding 7 others.

July 12, 2011 The Boko Haram sect members launch two bombs into a moving military patrol vehicle, injuring two soldiers. JTF reprisals kill 3 persons who may be sect members.

July 22, 2011 JTF, Operation Restore Order shoots a Boko Haram member dead, injuring one civilian.

July 23, 2011. Explosion. An explosion which rocks a market and the crossfire between Boko Haram sect members and army leaves 13 civilians dead. 3 soldiers are injured. According another source, the military operation following the blast kills 44 persons. Amnesty International reportedly accuses army of the killing of 23 people.

July 23, 2011. Boko Haram members engage JTF, patrolling in the area, in a shoot out. The two sect members were in a Honda car and the driver was carrying a riffle. One suspect dies during the crossfire.

August 2, 2011- Attacks. A taxi driver is killed  in an exchange of fire between JTF members of the Joint  and those of the Boko Haram sect shortly after a bomb explodes. Many churches are destroyed. Two persons are reportedly injured.

August 7, 2011- Attacks. Boko Haram shoot dead two friends, Mallam Nurudeen Umar and Sulaiman Bangini

August 12, 2011- Assassination. Muslim cleric Liman Bana shot dead.

August 14, 2011 Islamic cleric, Liman Bana, 65, trailed right from the Mosque to his residence is murdered by Boko Haram gunmen in presence of his family. The killers flee to Gambouru, a border community town with Chad.

August 15, 2011 A suicide bomber is shot dead before he could explode the bomb-laden vehicle at the police state command.

August 19, 2011 Boko Haram kills three policemen and a civilian watching television in a parlour.

August 23, 2011-Assassination. ANPP Chief, Alhaji Isa Marguba, 70, is shot dead  by Boko Haram sect members, when he returns from the mosque.

August 24, 2011-Assasssination. Boko Haram members murder a State accountant, seven-months pregnant. She was staff of Ministry of Finance

August 25, 2011-Attack. Attacks on two banks and two police stations in Gombi, northern Nigeria, left 16 people dead.

August 26, 2011–Attack by explosives-laden vehicle (Honda Accord) on (UN) compound in Abuja, allegedly masterminded by Mamman Nur, killed 23 people and injured 80 others.. In a martyrdom video, released on 1 September 2011,the perpetrator, Mohammed Abdul Barra, labelled the UN as the “forum of all the global evil” and praise was offered to the late Osama Bin Laden[8]

September 1, 2011-Assassination. Soldiers of Operation Tsaro" kill two motorcyclists suspected to be members of the Boko Haram sect."

September 1, 2011 Soldiers stationned in Biu go on rampage after a military officer is killed by believed Boko Haram members. At least 3 people die and many shops are destroyed.

September 4, 2011-Assassination. Two suspected Boko Haram members shot and killed Muslim cleric Malam Dala outside his home in the Zinnari area of Maiduguri.

September 12, 2011-Attacks. Bomb and shooting on a police station and a bank in Misau, Bauchi State. Seven people were killed, including four policemen. The bank was robbed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attacks.

September 13, 2011- Attack. Boko Haram members in Maiduguri shot and wounded four soldiers in an ambush. The attacks followed the arrest of 15 Boko Haram members in various military raids on Boko Haram hideouts in the city.

September 17, 2011- Assassination. Babakura Fugu (brother-in-law of former Boko Haram leader Mohammed Yusuf) was shot dead outside his house in Maiduguri by two suspected members of Boko Haram. Two days earlier, Fugu had attended a peace meeting with Nigeria’s ex-President Olusegun Obasanjo

October 2, 2011-Assassination Boko Haram shoots three traders dead, including a patented medicine seller.

October 6, 2011 Mob kill two suspected Boko Haram members.

October 10, 2011 Bomb explosion kills at least one person. The bomb, which hit a JTF vehicle, is suspected to be thrown by members of Boko Haram.

October 10, 2011 A policeman is shot dead by bank robbers suspected to be Boko Haram members, who attacked the same bank and killed four policemen in March.

October 15s, 2011 Gunmen suspected to be Boko Haram members kill Ali Banga, the leader of the Borno State Vigilante Association.

October 16, 2011 Gunmen kill Modu Bintube, a member of the Borno State House Assembly, in front of his house. One source of information suspects the gunmen to be Boko Haram members. Following a bomb attack on a MOPOL base, a policeman and three attackers are killed. Fifteen vehicles are burnt and a building destroyed. The attack could have been carried out by Boko Haram members.

October 16, 2011 Gunmen suspected to be Boko Haram members kill a reporter  (Zakariyya Isa) in front of his residence. In another source of information, a leader of Boko Haram explains that the murder was carefully planned because the journalist was spying on them and giving information to security agencies.

October 25, 2011-Assassination of a policeman. He was shot in his home in Damaturu, Yobe State. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the assassination.

October 29, 2011-Assassination of Muslim cleric Sheikh Ali Jana’a, outside his house in Maiduguri, Borno State. Jana’a was reported to have provided information on Boko Haram to the security forces.

November 3, 2011-Arrest. Sanda Umar Konduga (alias: Usman al-Zawahiri) was arrested by the State Security Service (SSS). Konduga admitted to being a member of Boko Haram and claimed he was working for the People’s Democratic Party (PDP) politicians in the State of Borno. Boko Haram rejected any links to Nigeria’s political parties.

November 4, 2011- Attack. Bomb and gun attacks in Damaturu, Yobe State. Targets included churches and mosques. At least 63 people were killed. Boko Haram claimed responsibility.- Attack. Suicide bombers attacked a military base in Maiduguri, Borno State. The number of casualties is not known. Authorities suspected that Boko Haram carried out the attack.

November13, 2011-Statement.Algeria’s deputy foreign minister said that intelligence reports showed coordination between al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Boko Haram.

November 15, 2011-Attack. Suspected Boko Haram members threw explosives at the convoy of Borno State governor Shettima in Maiduguri. No one was hurt.

November 15, 2011 At least one child is killed during a cross-fire between Boko Haram members and men of the JTF. One source also mentions that two soldiers were killed.

November 21, 2011 Three soldiers die in a clash between officers of the JTF and members of Boko Haram. Some civilians are also injured.

November 24, 2011-Statement. A spokesman for Boko Haram, Abul Qaqa, claimed Boko Haram had links with al-Qaeda.

November 26-27, 2011-Attack. Bomb attacks in Geidam, Yobe, following the arrest of Boko Haram members. Four policemen were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 3, 2011-Attack.Suspected Boko Haram gunmen killed two people in Maiduguri, Borno State. Three bombs also exploded, but no one was killed.

December 4, 2011-Attack. Bombing of two police buildings and two banks in Bauchi State. Three people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 6, 2011- Attack. A bomb explosion in Kaduna metropolis, Kaduna State, brought down a block of shops and apartments, killing eight people.394 Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 13, 2011- Attack. Bomb attack targeting soldiers. The soldiers retaliated with shooting and ten people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 15, 2011-Statement. Boko Haram members in Plateau State circulated pamphlets warning Jos residents that Boko Haram would bomb designated areas before December 26, 2011.Suspected Boko Haram members attack Air Force Comprehensive School in Kano. Two attackers and four Air Force members are killed.

December 17, 2012- Three Boko Haram members are killed in Maiduguri by their bombs explosion. IED, AK 47 rifles, ammunition are recovered from the scene of the blast. While in Kano Policemen are killed in a bloody clash with suspected Boko Haram members. Four Muslim sect members and at least 3 police officers die while 14 persons are arrested.. December 19, 2012-Shootout between Boko Haram and police in Kano leave three Boko Haram members and three policemen dead. Police seized bomb-making equipment and made arrests.

December 21, 2012- After a bomb rams into a military convoy, a confrontation between Boko Haram members and JTF ensues, killing at least 53 people. Victims are soldiers (four deaths), policemen, members of the Islamic sect and civilians. A policeman, assistant commissioner of police was among the Boko Haram sect members killed.

December 23, 2011-Attacks. Explosions and gunfire in Maiduguri, Damaturu and Potiskum. According to military sources in Maiduguri, Boko Haram attacked JTF operatives in at least six places within a span of one hour.399 The clashes in Damaturu continued for four days, and resulted in at least 10,000 internally displaced people, and an unknown number of deaths.

December 24–25, 2011- Planned attack. A plot by Boko Haram to bomb the military barracks, the Bougainvillea Hotel and a Shell oil facility in Port Harcourt was thwarted when security agencies arrested several suspects on the night of 24–25 December, according to an army commander.

December 25, 2011- Attacks. Multiple bomb attacks against churches and Christian worshippers throughout Nigeria, including:

December 28, 2011- Attack. Bombing and shooting at a beer parlor in Mubi, Adamawa State. No one was killed, but 15 people were wounded. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 30, 2011- Attack at a military checkpoint in Maiduguri. Four passers-by were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

December 31, 2011- Statement. President Jonathan declared a state of emergency in Borno, Yobe, Niger and Plateau States and ordered the closing of the borders to Chad and Niger near areas affected by recent attacks. He directed top security officials to set up a special counter-terrorism unit to fight the growing threat posed by Boko Haram

2012

January 4, 2012- Attack. Two gunmen, suspected to be Boko Haram members, entered a home and shot a teacher and his son in Dalla, Maiduguri. The JTF killed the two attackers during an arrest attempt.

January 5, 2012- Attack. Gunmen attacked a church in Gombe State. Reports of the number killed vary between three and six.413 Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

January 6, 2012-Attack. Shooting at a church in Yola. Eight people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

January 10, 2012-Attack on a beer garden in Damaturu, Yobe State. Eight people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

January 13, 2012- Attacks on a pub in Yola, Adamawa State and on a pub in Gombe, Gombe State. The attacks killed four and injured two. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attacks.

January 17, 2012-Attack on a military checkpoint in Maiduguri. Two soldiers and four attackers were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack. - Arrest: Six members of Boko Haram were arrested in a military raid on a hideout in Maiduguri.- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked an army outpost in Borno State, killing two people.

January 20, 2012- Attacks on eight government security buildings in Kano, including the regional police headquarters, two local police stations, the local headquarters of the State Security Service, the home of a police official and the state police command headquarters. There were up to five suicide bombers, at least 20 explosions and sustained gunfire.

January 22, 2012-Failed attack. Attempted bank robbery in Tafawa Balewa; repelled by security forces.

January 24, 2012-Arrests. The JFT arrested 158 suspected Boko Haram members following the Kano attacks. Police reported seizing ten cars laden with explosives and about 300 improvised explosive devices hidden in soft drink cans and bottles at a number of locations in Kano

January 28, 2012- JTF operation. The JTF killed 11 members of Boko Haram in Maiduguri

February 1, 2012 - Attack. Seven people were killed in Maiduguri, Borno State. Boko Haram took responsibility for the attack in a statement, saying they had killed 7 out of 30 persons earmarked to be executed because they revealed the identities of the 11 Boko Haram members who were killed by the JTF on January 28, 2012. - Arrest of (purported) spokesman for Boko Haram, Abu Qaqa. According to Boko Haram, the man who was arrested is not Abu Qaqa, but the SSS are certain that the captured man is Abu Qaqa.

February 7, 2012- Failed attack. A bomb was diffused by the police anti-bomb squad in Kaduna. The bomb was found in the house of Hon. Auwalu Ali Tafoki, a former Chairman of the Kaduna South Local Area.

February 15, 2012- Attack. Jailbreak in Koton-Karfe, Kogi State. About 20 gunmen attacked the prison with explosives and guns, freeing 119 inmates. Boko Haram claimed responsibility, saying they staged the operation to rescue seven Boko Haram members.

February 20, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram bomb and gun attack at a market in Maiduguri. According to hospital staff, 30 civilians were killed.436 The army killed eight of the attackers and deactivated bombs.

February 23, 2012- Statement. Nigeria’s minister of defense, Oluseyi Petinrin, stated that Boko Haram had ties to al-Qaeda.

February 25, 2012- Attack. Gunmen suspected of being from Boko Haram launched simultaneous gun and bomb attacks on a prison and a police station in Gombe. 14 people were killed.

February 26, 2012- Attack. A Boko Haram suicide bomber killed six Christians in an attack at a church in Jos, Plateau State. Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the attack.

March 2, 2012- Attack Boko Haram carries out two attacks, killing four people including a mother, her son and two others. In a second attack, a trader is killed at a market place and a tailor slaughtered with a knife.

March 3, 2012 - One of the suspected masterminds of the October 1, 2010 bombing in Abuja, Tiemkenfa Francis Osvwo (alias General Gbokos), dies in   Prison. His lawyer  alleges that Osvwo was murdered by the authorities. The cell was fumigated with a strange substance on the January 8, 2012, which affected the health of all the other suspects.

March 7, 2012- Attack on a police station in Ashaka, Gombe State. Seven people were killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

March 8, 2012- Kidnap, killings. An Italian and a British engineer, who were kidnapped in the northern town of Birnin Kebbi in May 2011, were killed when allied Nigerian-British forces tried to free them. Nigerian authorities blamed Boko Haram for the kidnapping and killings, but Boko Haram issued a statement denying any involvement.

March 9, 2012- Assassination. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen killed a traditional ruler as he left a mosque after Friday prayers in the northeastern Gombe State.

March 10, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked and burned down a police station in Bulabilin Ngaura village, Borno State, killing one policeman.- Failed attack. Boko Haram tried to attack a mobile police base in Maiduguri, but, according to local police, was repelled. One suspected Boko Haram member was killed and 11 were arrested.

March 11, 2012-Attack. A suspected Boko Haram suicide bomber killed three civilians in a bombing outside a church in Jos. Christian youths killed at least ten people in reprisal attacks

March 12, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked a military patrol, killing five people.

March 21, 2012 - Attack. Boko Haram suspects used explosives to destroy the Divisional Police Office’s (DPO) house in the Tudun Wada local government area, 100 kilometers from Abuja.- Failed attack. The JTF killed nine suspected Boko Haram members and arrested two when they attempted to rob a bank.

March 30, 2012-Attack. A government official reported that suspected members of Boko Haram killed four people when they robbed a bank and stormed a police station in Maiduguri, Borno State.

March 31, 2012- JTF operation. A raid of a bomb factory in Kogi led to a shootout between the JTF and suspected Boko Haram members. Ten people killed.

April 4, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen killed seven people in a market in Maiduguri.

April 8, 2012 (Easter Day)- Attack. A suicide bomber in a vehicle detonated explosives  near a church in Kaduna killing at least 38 people. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

April 12, 2012- Statement. Boko Haram released a video threatening to overthrow President Jonathan within three months.

April 18, 2012- Statement. The US government warned US citizens residing in Nigeria that Boko Haram is plotting attacks in the capital, Abuja, among others against hotels regularly visited by Westerners.

April 25, 2012- Arrest. The JTF raided a suspected Boko Haram “bomb factory” in a home in Kano State and arrested an unknown number of suspects. Items recovered from the house included improvised explosive devices (IEDs), assorted containers, liquid substances, charcoal and a film about Osama bin Laden. No one was killed

April 26, 2012 - Attack. A suicide attack on the offices of the Nigerian newspaper This Day in Abuja killed four people killed. Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the attack.- Attack. A car bomb exploded outside a complex housing a number of newspaper offices, including This Day in Kaduna (Reported by AFP, April 26). Boko Haram claimed responsibility. for the attack.- Statement. In a video statement, Boko Haram took responsibility for both April 26 attacks. The statement said that the media, and especially This Day, had offended the prophet Mohammed and told lies about Boko Haram, and threatened to attack other media houses.

April 29, 2012 - Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked a church in Keno, killing at least 15 people.- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen attacked a church in Maiduguri. Four people were killed.

April 30, 2012- Attack. A suicide bomber targeted a senior police official’s convoy in Taraba State, killing 11 people. The official was not injured. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

May 4, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen stormed a prison in Borno State, killing two guards and freeing an unknown number of prisoners.

May 6, 2012- Shootout between security forces and Boko Haram in Kano. Four Boko Haram members were killed.

May 11, 2012- Arrest. Suleiman Mohammed, described as Boko Haram’s head of operations in Kano, was arrested with his wife and five children during a police raid in Kano.

May 12, 2012- Attack. Suspected Boko Haram gunmen burned down a police station in Borno State. Two policemen were killed.

May 13, 2012- Shootout between security forces and Boko Haram in Kano. Six security force officers were killed.

May 19, 2012-JTF Operation. A suspected “Boko Haram enclave” was destroyed by the JTF in Jos.

May 22, 2012- Planned attack. Separate attempts to bomb police headquarters and a radio station in Abuja were stopped by security personnel in the buildings. The affiliation of the suicide bombers is unknown

June 3, 2012- Attack. A suicide bomber killed at least 12 people at a church in the northern town of Yelwa, Bauchi State. Boko Haram claimed responsibility for the attack.

June 5, 2012- Assassination. Two gunmen on a motorcycle killed former Nigerian deputy police chief Abubakar Saleh Ningi, his driver and a bodyguard in Kano.

June 5–6, 2012- JTF operation. Nigerian security forces shot dead 16 suspected Boko Haram militants from Maiduguri.

June 8, 2012- Attack. In a suicide bombing a man drove a car with explosives into the entrance of the police headquarters of Borno State. Four people were killed, including a policeman, and seven were wounded. No one claimed responsibility for the attack.

June 10, 2012- Attack. A suicide car bomb exploded outside a church in Jos. According to police, no one was killed in the explosion, but 41 people were wounded, and two bystanders were killed in subsequent retaliations.Attack. According to police, five gunmen attacked a church in the town of Biu, killing one and wounding three.

June 17, 2012- Attack. Coordinated suicide car bombings of three churches in the neighboring cities of Zaire and Kaduna in Kaduna State.

June 21, 2012- Statement. The United States Department of State designated Abubakar Shekau, Abubakar Adam Kambar, and Khalid al-Barnawi as ‘Specially Designated Global Terrorists’.-Arrest attempt: Habib Bama (aka Shuaibu Bama and Habib Mamman) was shot in an attempted arrest by the JTF in Yobe State. Bama was critically wounded, and later died in hospital. In a statement Boko Haram spokesman Abu Qaqa said the group was happy about Habib Bama’s “martyrdom.”

June 22, 2012 - Arrest. The JTF arrested four people trying to place bombs in a mosque in Kano.494The identity of the suspects was not released, but they were thought to be members of Boko Haram. Two days later, Boko Haram spokesman Abu Qaqa denied the involvement of Boko Haram in the attempted bombing.- Attack. A bomb exploded outside a nightclub frequented by Westerners in Abuja. No one was injured.

June 23, 2012- JTF operation. Four suspected Boko Haram members were killed in shootout when the JTF raided a Boko Haram hideout in Kano. The JTF recovered weapons, ammunition and a Honda vehicle primed for a suicide mission.

June 24, 2012- Attack. Gunmen attacked a prison in Yobe, freeing 40 inmates. Two attackers were killed, and several policemen wounded. The police claimed that Boko Haram was responsible.

June 25, 2012- Attack. An IED exploded near a cluster of bars in the city of Bauchi. Nine people were injured, but no one was killed. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

June 26, 2012- Attack. Three policemen were shot dead when gunmen attacked the regional police headquarters in the town of Wukari in Taraba State. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

June 26–27, 2012- Attacks. 30 militants used explosives and guns to attack Kano’s Dala police division. According to the police, ten militants and one policeman were killed in the ensuing shootout. - June 30, 2012- JTF operation. The JTF launched a pre-emptive offensive against Boko Haram in Damaturu (Yobe), following intelligence that Boko Haram planned to attack the city.

July 2, 2012- Attack. Nine construction workers building a mosque were killed in Maiduguri. Boko Haram was suspected of carrying out the attack.

July 4, 2012- Attack. An explosion outside a shopping mall in Abuja did not result in causalities.

July 5, 2012- Press Release. A Nigerian court accuses two men of having links with Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula and of receiving funds from the militant group to be used in conscripting and sending recruits to Yemen.

July 30, 2012- Attacks. Suicide bombings at two police stations kill two people in the city of Sokoto.

August 3, 2012- Attack. A top Muslim traditional leader in Potiskum escapes a suicide attack when the bomber is thwarted by locals before blowing himself up outside a mosque.

August 19, 2012- Attack. Gunmen blow up a primary school, a church and police station in Damagun town in Yobe State.

September 16, 2012- Attack. Six are shot dead and nine injured when BH gunmen fire into a group of ludo game players in Bauchi.

September 23, 2012- Attack. A suicide bomber blows up his explosives-laden car near a church in the city of Bauchi, killing a female worshipper and her son and injuring dozens.

 October 18, 2012-Attack.Twenty-three killed in coordinated bomb and gun attacks by BH in Potiskum

October 28, 2012- Attack. Ten killed and 145 injured in a suicide bomb attack on a church in Kaduna .

November 7, 2012. Attack.BH gunmen kill two Chinese construction engineers in an attack on a Chinese construction company yard in Benishek town outside Maiduguri.

 

2013

January 22-24, 2013- Attacks. Continuous Maiduguri violent attacks.

February 8, 2013- Attacks. Gunmen kill 10 polio immunization workers and injure three others in separate attacks on two polio clinics in Kano.

February 10, 2013-Assassinations.Three North Korean doctors are killed by unknown attackers in Potiskum in northeastern Yobe State.

February 16, 2013- Kidnappings. Gunmen kidnap seven foreign construction workers - a Briton, an Italian, a Greek and four Lebanese - in Jamaare

February 19, 2013- Kidnappings. A French family of seven is kidnapped in Cameroon and taken to Nigeria. BH claims responsibility.

February 25, 2013- A video appears on YouTube of seven kidnapped members of a French family with their abductors, who claimed to be from BH, demanding the release of their imprisoned comrades. France condemns the video as a shocking "display of the kidnappers' cruelty.

March 5, 2013- Statement, Assassination. BH leader Abubakar Shekau denies any ceasefire deal with the government in a video in which a man accused of being an informant appears to be beheaded on camera.

March 15, 2013- Assassination. Gunmen kill a senior judicial official in northern Nigeria's largest city, Kano. Gunmen raid a prison in Gwoza, in northeastern Borno State, freeing 170 inmates and killing a civilian

March 18, 2013- Attack. A suicide attack at a bus station in Nigeria’s second largest city, Kano, kills 41.

March 22,2013- Attack. Twenty-five are killed in northeastern Adamawa State when attackers blast a jail, a police station and a bank with bombs, machine-guns and rocket-propelled grenades. Some 127 prison inmates escape during an attack on the jailhouse in Ganye town.

April 11, 2013- Attacks. Four policemen and five BH gunmen are killed in a shootout during an attack on a police station in Babban Gida Village of Yobe State.

April 11,2013- Statement. BH leader Abubakar Shekau rejects the idea of any potential amnesty deal with the government.

19 to 26 April 2013- JTF Operation. Fierce fighting between troops and suspected Islamists in the remote northeastern town of Baga kills 187 people.

May 3 2013-Kidnapping. A former Nigerian oil minister, Ali Monguno, is kidnapped by gunmen who storm his vehicle outside a mosque in the restive city of Maiduguri.

May 7, 2013- Attacks. BH launches coordinated attacks in the northeastern town of Bama against security formations, killing 55 people and freeing 105 inmates.

 May 13, 2013- Statement. BH claims responsibility for the Baga and Bama attacks in a video, which also depicts women and children apparently being held hostage.

May 17, 2013- JTF Operation. Nigeria's military announces a "massive” deployment of troops and military hardware to its restive northeast, after the president declares a state of emergency in areas where Islamist insurgents have seized territory. Phone signals are shut down in Borno and Yobe states.

June 17, 2013- BH gunmen storm a student dormitory in a secondary school in Damaturu, killing seven students and two teachers.

 July 6,2013- Attack. BH gunmen attack a government secondary school in Mamudo in Yobe State, killing 41 students and a teacher and setting dormitories on fire.

July 27, 2013- Attack, BH gunmen kill more than 20 civilians, mostly fishermen and traders. The attack is a reprisal for an attack on them by a vigilante group in Dawashe Village, near the town of Baga in Borno State.

August 31, 2013- Attacks. BH gunmen kill 12 nomads who storm Boko Harma’s hideout to avenge the killing of two herders killed by the insurgents following a previous attack on Yaguwa Village in Damboa District of Borno State.

September 11, 2013-Attacks. Gunmen with explosives and rocket-propelled grenades attack a police station in Ga’anda Village in northeast Adamawa State, killing two officers and injuring another. The police station is burned in the attack.

September 17,2013- Attacks. BH gunmen kill 142 people and burn dozens of homes in coordinated attacks on the town of Benisheikh in Borno State.

September 298, 2013-Attacks. BH gunmen open fire in a dormitory at the College of Agriculture, in the town of Gujba in Yobe State, while students were asleep. Forty students are killed.

October 24, 2013-Attacks. BH gunmen in military uniform launch coordinated attacks on a military barracks and four police facilities in Yobe State capital Damaturu. 21 persons including soldiers, police, civilians and insurgents were killed in multiple attacks carried out by Boko Haram sect members. However, another report says the Army killed 21 insurgents. An Army source put the casualty figure on the part of the insurgents at 70.

November 4, 2013-Attacks. Dozens of BH gunmen on motorcycles and in pickups kill 27 people and burn down 300 homes in a raid on Bama, a town in northeast Borno State.

November 13, 2013 -Kidnapping. Gunmen riding on motorcycles kidnap a French Catholic priest from his parish in the Cameroonian village of Nguetchewe, 10km from the Nigerian border. The 15 gunmen cross into Nigeria, and Cameroon authorities blame BH.

November 23, 2013-Attacks BH gunmen kill 12 residents, burn several homes and steal vehicles in an attack on Sandiya Village, 85km outside Maiduguri. Over 40 Boko Haram members were killed in an offensive by the military. The sect members were killed during offensive air and land raids of their hideouts in Gwoza.

December 2, 2013-Attacks. Around 200 BH gunmen dressed as soldiers launch coordinated attacks on an air force base, a military barracks and a nearby checkpoint in Maiduguri.

2014

January 26, 2014-Attacks. At least 78 people are killed in two separate attacks in north-east Nigeria — one on a busy market in Borno state and the other in neighbouring Adamawa, with suspicions falling on Boko Haram

February 11, 2014- Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram militants torch houses in the village of Konduga, killing at least 23 people, according to the governor of Borno state.

February 15, 2014-Attacks. Dozens of residents in northeastern Nigeria are killed in two separate attacks launched by Boko Haram, according to officials and residents.

February 26, 2014-Attacks. At least 29 students die in an attack on a federal college in Buni Yadi, near the the capital of Yobe state, Nigeria's military says.

March 14, 2014-Attacks. Hundreds of militants were said to have taken part in the  attack on the Giwa barracks in Maiduguri,

March 30, 2014-Failed Attack. Heavy gunfire that may have lasted some hours very close to Aso Rock, the presidential villa, starting at. Sunday morning. The gunfire appears to have been centered at Yellow House, the headquarters of the State Security Services (SSS).

April 14, 2014- At the suburban Abuja bus station a suicide bomber blasts himself in an explosion that killed at least seventy-five people and probably many more.

April 17, 2014-Kidnappings. More than 200 girls and young women went missing from their school dormitories

April 20, 2014-Attack. Suspected gunmen set ablaze some houses in the staff quarters of Government Girls Secondary School, Yana, killing a five-year old girl

April 23, 2014-Assassinations.Two Borno State politicians have been killed by suspected members of the outlawed Boko Haram sect in an highway ambush[9]

April 26, 2014-Attacks. Boko Haram insurgents have attacked a military unit at Blabili, 29 April 2014 Relatives say they have been told of mass weddings involving insurgents and some of the girls abducted two weeks ago

May 5, 2014- Statement. Leader of Boko Haram that kidnapped the girls announced plans to sell them

May 20 2014-Attacks. At least 118 are killed and 56 injured in two car bomb attacks on a market in Jos, central Nigeria, which go off within 20 minutes of each other. The regional governor blames Boko Haram.

June 1, 2014-Attacks. At least 40 are killed when a bomb explodes at a football stadium in Mubi in the north-east of the country shortly after a match. The attack is blamed on Boko Haram.

June 14, 2014- Attacks. Hundreds are feared dead in a suspected Boko Haram attack on four villages in Borno state, with local leaders putting the death toll as high as 500.

June 17, 2014- Attacks. 21 football fans are killed when a bomb rips through the viewing centre where they are watching the World Cup in Damaturu, northern Nigeria.

June 24 2014- Attacks. Local officials report 30 killed and more than 60 women kidnapped in a series of attacks over several days in Borno state, although the Nigerian government denies the abductions.

June 25 2014-Attacks. At least 21 people are killed and 17 injured in a bombing at a crowded shopping centre in the centre of Abuja. The attack — the third on the city in three months — is blamed on Boko Haram.

July 3 2014-Failed Attack. suspected Boko Haram fighters killed 5 people in Konduga (Borno) when a bomb believed to have been planted in a pickup van loaded with firewood exploded.

July 4, 2014-Attack. 15 people, including motorists, were killed when suspected Boko Haram gunmen laid ambush along Maiduguri -Mafa- Dikwa Road.

July 6, 2014-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters, dressed in military uniforms, killed seven people in an attack at Krenuwa village in the Marte district, near the northeastern border with Cameroon.

July 8, 2014-JTF Operation Nigerian soldiers attempted to regain control over the Damboa military base that resulted in 15 soldiers killed when Boko Haram fighters counter attacked.

July 11, 2014-Attacks Suspected Boko Haram fighters destroyed the main bridge linking Maiduguri-Damboa-Madafuma- Biu Road.

July 14, 2014-Attacks. Dille village in Askira Uba Local government of Borno State was attacked by suspected Boko Haram gunmen and killed 26 people as well as torching houses and three churches.

July 14, 2014-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters attacked the Mandafuma village in Biu Local Government Area of the Borno state, injuring one person and destroying property.

July 15, 2014- Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters attacked the Borno State village of Huyim village in Biu Local Government Areawith and killed about 9 people.

July 15, 2014-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters attacked the Sabon Gari village in Damboa Local Government Area of Borno State and killed approximately 27 people. Sabon Gari is located about 40 kilometres from Biu in southern Borno, and 145 kilometres away from Maiduguri. 

July 16, 2014-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters kidnapped a German in Gombi town of Adamawa State. The man, who is said to be the principal of a technical skill acquisition centre in the town, was abducted on his way to work.

July 17, 2014-Attacks Suspected Boko Haram fighters destroyed a bridge in Gambou Ngala (Borno State), which linked Nigeria to Cameroon.

July 18, 2014-JTF Operation Boko Haram fighters killed approximately 80 villagers   and set homes a blaze in Damboa (northeastern Nigerian town just 85 kilometers (53 miles) from Maiduguri).

July 23, 2014-Attack.Two suicide bombings in Kaduna (north central city in    Nigeria) during which approximately 82 people were killed.

July 24, 2014-Attacks. Suspected Boko Haram fighters launched a crossborder raid into Cameroon during which 2 Cameroonian soldiers were killed. 

July 25, 2014- Attack.Boko Haram fighters attacked a community in the south of Borno State, killing its district leader, Alhaji Ibrahim Dawi, and about 12 people. Residents of Garubula village in Biu local government area of the state confirmed that Dawi was shot dead.

27 July 2014-Kidnapping. Boko Haram fighters kidnapped the wife of Cameroon's vice prime minister and killed at least three people during an attack on the northern town of Kolofata, Cameroon.

July 29, 2014-Failed Attack. Boko Haram is accused of two suicide bombing in Potiskum (Yobe State) during which 55 people were killed. According to witnesses, the first explosions occurred near the palace of the Emir of Potiskum at the Shi'ia Kalli Alkali Mosque. The second explosion was at a Majalisa, where Shi’ate Muslims were resting at one of the primary schools in Potiskum.

July 30, 2014- Boko Haram fighters set a light five churches in communities south of Borno, namely Kwajaffa, Tashan Alade and some communities in Hawul Local Government Area in the southern part of the state.

 

About the Compiler: Ioannis Mantzikos is a PhD candidate at the Univeristy of Free State in South Africa. He holds postgraduate titles from SOAS and King’s College London. He currently co-authors a book on the transformation of al-Qaeda in the Middle East and North Africa with Dr Denise Baken (forthcoming 2015).

 

Notes

[1] Emilie Ofetal’s Timeline of incidents in: Boko Haram – an overview (2013),,p. 61 and data provided by Wale Adeboye which we gratefully acknowledge.-

[2] http://intelcenter.com/reports/charts/most-deadly-groups-2014/?utm_source=IntelCenter+Email+Lists&utm_campaign=6224a6744d-IntelCenter-MostDeadlyGroups-25Jul2014&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_64a02056e3-6224a6744d-33361413&mc_cid=6224a6744d&mc_eid=ba8ca1085h; accessed 2 August 2014.

[3] http://www.nytimes.com/2014/05/08/world/africa/boko-haram-seeks-new-battlegrounds.html

[4] University of Maryland. START. Global Terrorism Database; available at… http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/.; Emilie Oftedal. Boko Haram – an overview. Oslo: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), 2013

[5] J. Forest, op. cit., pp. 58-59, 61..

[6] Idem, pp.63-64.

[7] Emilie Oftedal. Boko Haram – an overview. Oslo: Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI), 2013, p.17.

[8] E. Oftedal, op. cit., p.38.

[9]http://public.tableausoftware.com/profile/ - !/vizhome/NSTWeeklyUpdateApril19-25/Dashboard1

 



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