Bibliography: Conflict in Syria (Part 3)

Compiled and selected by Judith Tinnes

[Bibliographic Series of Perspectives on Terrorism–BSPT-JT-2017-2]


This bibliography contains journal articles, book chapters, books, edited volumes, theses, grey literature, bibliographies and other resources on the Syrian conflict. To keep up with the rapid changing political events, more recent publications have been prioritized during the selection process. The literature has been retrieved by manually browsing more than 200 core and periphery sources in the field of Terrorism Studies. Additionally, full-text and reference retrieval systems have been employed to expand the search.

Keywords: bibliography, resources, literature, Syria, conflict, uprising, civil war, Assad regime, rebels, opposition, Jabhat al-Nusra, Jabhat Fatah al-Sham, YPG, Russia

NB: All websites were last visited on 22.03.2017. This subject bibliography is conceptualized as a multi-part series (for earlier bibliographies, see: Part 1 and Part 2). To avoid duplication, this compilation only includes literature not contained in the previous parts. However, meta-resources, such as bibliographies, were also included in the sequels. Literature focusing specifically on the “Islamic State” (a.k.a. ISIS, ISIL, Daesh) has been excluded as it is covered in a separate multi-part bibliography. – See also Note for the Reader at the end of this literature list.

Bibliographies and other Resources

Adelson, Samuel (2013, May): Annotated Bibliography for Syria. (Model Arab League Research Resources). URL: http://ncusar.org/modelarableague/resources/Annotated-Bibliography-Syria.pdf

Agathocle deSyracuse (2014, May-): @deSyracuse. URL: https://twitter.com/deSyracuse

Aleppo24 (2015, October-): @24Aleppo. URL: https://twitter.com/24Aleppo

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (2012, November-): Aymenn Jawad Al-Tamimi’s Blog. URL: http://www.aymennjawad.org

ARK (2015, June-): Conflicting Voices: Insights from Regime and Opposition Media in Syria. [Weekly Report Series]. URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/publications

Crane, David (Project Leader) et al. (2011-): The Syrian Accountability Project (SAP). URL: http://syrianaccountabilityproject.org

DeirEzzor24 (n.d.-): URL: http://en.deirezzor24.net

Global Observatory (2013, June 24): A Resource Guide to the Syrian Conflict. URL: http://theglobalobservatory.org/reports/522-a-resource-guide-to-the-syrian-conflict.html

Haddad, Bassam et al. (Eds.) (2010, July-): Jadaliyya: Syria Page. URL: http://syria.jadaliyya.com

Higgins, Eliot et al. (2014, July-): Bellingcat. URL: https://www.bellingcat.com

Hinnebusch, Raymond; Imady, Omar (Eds.) (2008-): Syria Studies. [ISSN: 2056-3175]. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/index

Institute for the Study of War (ISW) (2013, August 30-): ISW Blog: Syria. URL: http://iswresearch.blogspot.de/search/label/Syria

Khatib, Hadi et al. (2015-): The Syrian Archive: Preserving Documentation of Human Rights Violations. URL: https://syrianarchive.org

Lund, Aron (Ed.) (2012-): Syria in Crisis. URL: http://carnegieendowment.org/syriaincrisis

Lynch, Marc (2013, September 4): A Syria Reading List. Foreign Policy. URL: http://foreignpolicy.com/2013/09/04/a-syria-reading-list

Masi, Alessandria (Managing Ed.) (2012, December-): Syria Deeply. URL: http://beta.syriadeeply.org

NATO Multimedia Library (2015, April): The Syrian Civil War. (Thematic Bibliography No. 2/15). URL: http://www.natolibguides.info/ld.php?content_id=10701655

Orton, Kyle W. (2014, March-): The Syrian Intifada. URL: https://kyleorton1991.wordpress.com

Paraszczuk, Joanna (2013, August-): From Chechnya to Syria: Tracking Russian-Speaking Foreign Fighters in Syria. URL: http://www.chechensinsyria.com

Raqqa24 (2016, November-): @24Raqqa. URL: https://twitter.com/24Raqqa

Raqqa is Being Slaughtered Silently (RBSS) (2014, April-): URL: http://www.raqqa-sl.com/en

Rogalski, Jürgen; Grimm, Jannis (2015, January): Länderspezifische Analysen und Kommentare: Syrien. In: Aktuelle Kurzbibliographie. (SWP [WIM] Bibliography). URL: http://www.swp-berlin.org/de/swp-themendossiers/umbruch-in-der-arabischen-welt/aktuelle-kurzbibliographie/laenderspezifische-analysen-und-kommentare.html#c4415

Sound and Picture (n.d.-): URL: http://sound-and-picture.com/en/

Syrian Civil War (n.d.-): [Internet Forum]. URL: https://www.reddit.com/r/syriancivilwar

Syrian Network for Human Rights (SNHR) (2011, June-): URL: http://sn4hr.org

Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SOHR) (2006, May-): URL: http://www.syriahr.com/en

Syrian Studies Association (1993, Autumn-): Syrian Studies Association Bulletin. URL: https://ojcs.siue.edu/ojs/index.php/ssa/index

Tinnes, Judith (2013, December): Literature on the Conflict in Syria (2011 – November 2013). Perspectives on Terrorism, 7(6), 137-165. URL: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/317

Tinnes, Judith (2015, June): Bibliography: Conflict in Syria (Part 2). Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(3), 82-112. URL: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/431

van Linge, Thomas (2013, January-): @arabthomness. URL: https://twitter.com/arabthomness

Van Ostaeyen, Pieter (2012, October-): pietervanostaeyen: Musings on Arabism, Islamicism, History and Current Affairs. URL: https://pietervanostaeyen.wordpress.com

Van Vlierden, Guy (2013, May-): emmejihad: ExcuseMeMyEnglish – A Research Blog about Jihad in and out of Belgium. URL: https://emmejihad.wordpress.com

Winter, Charlie (2013, July-): @charliewinter. URL: https://twitter.com/charliewinter

Woods, Chris et al. (n.d.-): Airwars. URL: https://airwars.org

Zelin, Aaron Y. (2010, June-): Jihadology. URL: http://jihadology.net

Books and Edited Volumes

Abboud, Samer N. (2016): Syria. (Hot Spots in Global Politics). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Alhouis, Ahed (2015): U.S. Foreign Policy towards Syria: Perceiving Syria. (Routledge Studies in US Foreign Policy). Abingdon: Routledge.

Beck, Martin; Jung, Dietrich; Seeberg, Peter (Eds.) (2016): The Levant in Turmoil: Syria, Palestine, and the Transformation of Middle Eastern Politics. (The Modern Muslim World). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137526021

Bentley, Michelle (2016): Syria and the Chemical Weapons Taboo: Exploiting the Forbidden. (New Approaches to Conflict Analysis). Manchester: Manchester University Press.

Borri, Francesca (2016): Syrian Dust: Reporting from the Heart of the Battle for Aleppo. (Anne Milano Appel, Trans.). New York: Seven Stories Press.

Rougier, Bernard (2015): The Sunni Tragedy in the Middle East: Northern Lebanon from al-Qaeda to ISIS. (Trans.). (Princeton Studies in Muslim Politics). Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Çakmak, Cenap; Ustaoğlu, Murat (2015): Post-Conflict Syrian State and Nation Building: Economic and Political Development. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137538857

Clawson, Patrick (Ed.) (2016, November): Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation and Complications. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 150). Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrian-kurds-as-a-u.s.-ally-cooperation-and-complications

Cockburn, Patrick; Fisk, Robert; Sengupta, Kim (2015): Syria: Descent into the Abyss: 2011-2014. London: Independent Print Limited.

Davidson, Christopher (2016): Shadow Wars: The Secret Struggle for the Middle East. London: Oneworld Publications.

de Guttry, Andrea; Capone, Francesca; Paulussen, Christophe (Eds.) (2016): Foreign Fighters under International Law and beyond. The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press/Springer. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6265-099-2

di Giovanni, Janine (2016): The Morning they Came for us: Dispatches from Syria. New York: W. W. Norton.

Erlich, Reese (2014): Inside Syria: The Backstory of their Civil War and what the World Can Expect. New York: Prometheus Books.

Felsch, Maximilian; Wählisch, Martin (Eds.) (2016): Lebanon and the Arab Uprisings: In the Eye of the Hurricane. (Durham Modern Middle East and Islamic World Series, Vol. 40). Abingdon: Routledge.

Ferris, Elizabeth G.; Kirişci, Kemal (2016): The Consequences of Chaos: Syria’s Humanitarian Crisis and the Failure to Protect. (The Marshall Papers). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Gerlach, Daniel (2015): Herrschaft über Syrien: Macht und Manipulation unter Assad. Hamburg: edition Körber-Stiftung.

Glass, Charles (2016): Syria Burning: A Short History of a Catastrophe. (Updated ed.). London: Verso.

Goldsmith, Leon T. (2015): Cycle of Fear: Syria’s Alawites in War and Peace. London: Hurst.

Gunter, Michael M. (2016): The Kurds: A Modern History. Princeton: Markus Wiener Publishers.

Harling, Peter; Birke, Sarah; Simon, Alex (2016, November): Daesh is not the Point: Counter-Intuiting the Middle-East. [e-Book]. URL: https://synaps.atavist.com/daesh-is-not-the-point?promo

Hinnebusch, Raymond; Tür, Özlem (Eds.) (2016): Turkey-Syria Relations: Between Enmity and Amity. Abingdon: Routledge. (Original work published 2013)

Hoeling, Sabrina (2015): Can R2P Practice what it Promises? A Case Study on the Syrian Civil War. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing.

Kerr, Michael; Larkin, Craig (Eds.) (2015): The Alawis of Syria: War, Faith and Politics in the Levant. (Urban Conflicts, Divided Societies). London: Hurst.

Kozhanov, Nikolay (2016): Russia and the Syrian Conflict: Moscow’s Domestic, Regional and Strategic Interests. Berlin: Gerlach Press.

Lister, Charles R. (2015): The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Evolution of an Insurgency. London: Hurst.

Littell, Jonathan (2015): Syrian Notebooks: Inside the Homs Uprising. (Charlotte Mandell, Trans.). London: Verso.

Lundgren Jörum, Emma (2014): Beyond Syria’s Borders: A History of Territorial Disputes in the Middle East. (Library of Modern Middle East Studies, Vol. 155). London: I.B. Tauris.

Lynch, Marc (2016): The New Arab Wars: Uprisings and Anarchy in the Middle East. New York: PublicAffairs.

McHugo, John (2014): Syria: A Recent History. London: Saqi Books.

Miller, Sarah Deardorff (2017): Political and Humanitarian Responses to Syrian Displacement. (Routledge Focus). Abingdon: Routledge.

Mohseni, Payam (Ed.) (2015, October): Disrupting the Chessboard: Perspectives on the Russian Intervention in Syria. (Iran Project Report). Cambridge: Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School. URL: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/25907/disrupting_the_chessboard.html

Moubayed, Sami (2015): Under the Black Flag: At the Frontier of the New Jihad. London: I.B. Tauris.

Nalbandian, Nish (2016): A Whole World Blind: War and Life in Northern Syria. n.p.: Daylight Books.

Petrovic, Jadranka (Ed.) (2016): Accountability for Violations of International Humanitarian Law: Essays in Honour of Tim McCormack. (Routledge Research in the Law of Armed Conflict). Abingdon: Routledge.

Phillips, Christopher (2016): The Battle for Syria: International Rivalry in the New Middle East. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Phillips, David L. (2015): The Kurdish Spring: A New Map of the Middle East. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.

Silander, Daniel; Wallace, Don (2015): International Organizations and the Implementation of the Responsibility to Protect: The Humanitarian Crisis in Syria. (Global Politics and the Responsibility to Protect). Abingdon: Routledge.

Sorenson, David S. (2016): Syria in Ruins: The Dynamics of the Syrian Civil War. Santa Barbara: Praeger Security International.

Starr, Stephen Z. (2015): Revolt in Syria: Eye-Witness to the Uprising. (2nd, revised ed.). London: Hurst.

Stilwell, Alexander (2015): Special Forces in Action: Iraq – Syria – Afghanistan – Africa – Balkans. London: Amber Books.

Tomass, Mark (2016): The Religious Roots of the Syrian Conflict: The Remaking of the Fertile Crescent. (Twenty-First Century Perspectives on War, Peace, and Human Conflict). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137525710

Winter, Stefan (2016): A History of the ‘Alawis: From Medieval Aleppo to the Turkish Republic. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Worth, Robert F. (2016): A Rage for Order: The Middle East in Turmoil, from Tahrir Square to ISIS. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Yassin-Kassab, Robin; Al-Shami, Leila (2016): Burning Country: Syrians in Revolution and War. London: Pluto Press.


Aarts, Jeroen A. H. (2015, January): Saving the Libyans and Skipping the Syrians, what’s the Deal with that? A Comparative Study of International Community Responses to Arab Spring Violence in Libya and Syria from the Outbreak of Conflicts until the End of 2013. (Master’s Thesis, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/32871

Browne, Craig McCrea (2015, April): The Salience of Sectarianism: Making Sect Stick in Syria and Iraq. (Master’s Thesis, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10822/760794

d’Alverny, Diane (2016, July): The Impact of the International System on International Civil War: Evolution from the Cold War to the Syrian Conflict. (Master’s Thesis, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/42770

Davis, Kristen L. (2015, May): The Expanding Nature of the Syrian Civil War: From Poor Policy to Regional Conflict. (Master’s Thesis, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States). URL: http://jhir.library.jhu.edu/handle/1774.2/38147

de Roy van Zuijdewijn, Jeanine H. (2014, January): Fearing the Western Muslim Foreign Fighter: The Connection between Fighting the Defensive Jihad and Terrorist Activity in the West. (Master’s Thesis, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands). URL: http://dspace.library.uu.nl:8080/handle/1874/290146

Dews, David (2016, Spring): Identity and Islamist Radicalisation: The Foreign Fighters of Europe. (Master’s Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden). URL: http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A930113&dswid=-6800

Dinerstein, Anton (2015, August): Comparing News Frames about the Syrian Crisis between the Kommersant and the Financial Times. (Master’s Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, United States). URL: http://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_gradthes/3470

Dragon, Justin D. (2015, June): Western Foreign Fighters in Syria: An Empirical Analysis of Recruitment and Mobilization Mechanisms. (Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/45842

Ella, Nicole Doreen (2016, Spring): Local Genevas: Towards Hybrid Humanitarian Negotiations in Syria? (Master’s Thesis, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden). URL: http://uu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A930100&dswid=9190

Georges, Hala (2016, May): Conversations in the Midst of the Syrian Conflict: A Visual Response to the Syrian Conflict via the Domestic and Personal. (Doctoral Thesis, University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom). URL: http://eprints.brighton.ac.uk/id/eprint/15889

Gohdes, Anita Rosemary (2014): Repression in the Digital Age: Communication Technology and the Politics of State Violence. (Doctoral Thesis, Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany). URL: https://ub-madoc.bib.uni-mannheim.de/37902

Haj Omar, Husam (2016, June): Ideology, Media and Conflict in Political Discourse and its Translation during the Arab Spring: Syria as a Case Study. (Doctoral Thesis, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom). URL: http://etheses.whiterose.ac.uk/id/eprint/15193

Hollander, Welmoed Florien (2015, June): Water as a Political Tool? Water Management in Syria from the Advent of Hafez al-Assad to the Current Syrian Crisis. (Master’s Thesis, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/33742

Kerrin, Jonathan Denzil (2014, February): Religious Trends within the Syrian Civil War: An Analysis of Religion as a Dynamic and Integral Part of the Conflict. (Master’s Thesis, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2263/46157

Khallaf, Hanouf (2016, May): Veto Syria: Explaining the Power of the United Nations Security Council and the Syrian Refugee Crisis. (Master’s Thesis, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, United States). URL: http://repository.usfca.edu/capstone/354

Martin, Wesley Patrick (2015, May): Jordanian Instability: Results of the Syrian Civil War and Implications for US Foreign Policy. (Master’s Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2152/32377

McCulley, Dylan P. (2016, September): States of Terror: Understanding Evolving Islamist Terrorist Organizations and the Threat they Pose. (Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/50590

Mullins, Creighton A. (2015, March): Syria and the Rise of Radical Islamist Groups. (Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/45231

Owusu, Fidel Amakye (2015, August): The Sunni-Shiite Rivalry in the Middle East: The Iraq and Syria Examples. (Master’s Thesis, University of Ghana, Legon, Ghana). URL: http://ugspace.ug.edu.gh:8080/xmlui/handle/123456789/8677

Pardue Lackey, Tara (2015): Is Quality all the same? A Comparative Study of Print and Television Coverage of the Syrian Conflict. (Master’s Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, United States). URL: http://lib.dr.iastate.edu/etd/14964

Proudfood, Philip James (2016, March): The Living Dead: Revolutionary Subjectivity and Syrian Rebel-Workers in Beirut. (Doctoral Thesis, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, United Kingdom). URL: http://etheses.lse.ac.uk/id/eprint/3386

Prucha, Nico (2015): Online Territories of Terror – How Jihadist Movements Project Influence on the Internet and why it Matters Off-line. (Doctoral Thesis, Universität Wien, Vienna, Austria). URL: http://othes.univie.ac.at/36565

Reynolds, Sean C. (2016, March): German Foreign Fighters in Syria and Iraq. (Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, United States). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10945/48583

Smeets, Marloes (2016, August): Nous sommes la France. We have to act: France’s Foreign Policy Discourse and Behaviour towards the Syrian Civil War. (Master’s Thesis, Leiden University, Leiden, The Netherlands). URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1887/42535

Smith, Gareth Ross (2015, May): The Myth of the Underdog in Press Photo Images of the Syrian Civil War. (Master’s Thesis, University of Iowa, Iowa City, United States). URL: http://ir.uiowa.edu/etd/1757

Snook, Daniel Walter, II (2015): Is what Is Past always Prologue? Priming to Past Conflicts and Fear of Terrorism Influence Americans’ Support for Military Intervention in Syria. (Master’s Thesis, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, United States). URL: http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/etd/561

Workman, Andrew H. (2016, March): Understanding the Gulf’s New Syria Policy: Power, Identity, or Economy? (Master’s Thesis, McGill University, Montréal, Canada). URL: http://digitool.Library.McGill.CA:80/R/-?func=dbin-jump-full&object_id=141595&silo_library=GEN01

Journal Articles and Book Chapters

Aasgaard, Andrea Sjøberg (2017, Winter): Migrants, Housewives, Warriors or Sex Slaves: AQ’s and the Islamic State’s Perspectives on Women. Connections, 16(1), 99-111. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11610/Connections.16.1.08

Abbas, Yasir (2016, April): Another “State” of Hate: Al-Nusra’s Quest to Establish an Islamic Emirate in the Levant. Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, 20, 45-64. URL: https://s3.amazonaws.com/media.hudson.org/files/publications/20160506CurrentTrends20.pdf

Abdul-Nabi, Zainab (2015, December): Based on the Peace Journalism Model: Analysis of Al-Jazeera’s Coverage of Bahrain’s Uprising and Syria’s Chemical Attack. Global Media and Communication, 11(3), 271-302. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1742766515606300

Aboultaif, Eduardo Wassim (2016): Regional and International Factors that Prolong the Syrian Crisis. Syria Studies, 8(2), 1-11. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/1376

AbuZayd, Karen et al. (2015, Summer): The Syrian Humanitarian Crisis: What Is to Be Done? Middle East Policy, 22(2), 1-29. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mepo.12125

Achcar, Gilbert (2016): Syria: The Clash of Barbarisms. In: Morbid Symptoms: Relapse in the Arab Uprising. (Stanford Studies in Middle Eastern and Islamic Societies and Cultures). Stanford: Stanford University Press, 15-64.

Ahmad, Aisha (2016): Going Global: Islamist Competition in Contemporary Civil Wars. Security Studies, 25(2), 353-384. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09636412.2016.1171971

Ahva, Laura; Hellman, Maria (2015, November): Citizen Eyewitness Images and Audience Engagement in Crisis Coverage. International Communication Gazette, 77(7), 668-681. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1748048515601559 URL: http://www.uta.fi/cmt/yhteystiedot/henkilokunta/laura_ahva/index/Accepted%20Manuscript_Citizen%20eyewitness%20images.pdf

Akpınar, Pınar (2016): The Limits of Mediation in the Arab Spring: The Case of Syria. Third World Quarterly, 37(12), 2288-2303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2016.1218273

Akram, Susan M. et al. (2015): Protecting Syrian Refugees: Laws, Policies, and Global Responsibility Sharing: Report Summary. Middle East Law and Governance, 7(3), 287-318. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/18763375-00703003

Ali, Ali Abdul Kadir (2015): The Security Gap in Syria: Individual and Collective Security in “Rebel-held” Territories. Stability, 4(1), Article 40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5334/sta.gd

Al Jazairi, Rania (2015): Transitional Justice in Syria: The Role and Contribution of Syrian Refugees and Displaced Persons. Middle East Law and Governance, 7(3), 336-359. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/18763375-00703002

Alkaff, Syed Huzaifah Bin Othman (2015, December-2016, January): Syria. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, 7(11), 87-91. URL: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CTTA-January-2016.pdf

Alkaff, Syed Huzaifah Bin Othman; Binte Yussof, NurulHuda (2016, August): An Overview of the Syrian Conflict. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, 8(8), 8-11. URL: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/CTTA-August-2016.pdf

al Om, Tamara (2016): The Emergence of the Political Voice of Syria’s Civil Society from within the Non-Violent Movements of the Syrian Uprising. Syria Studies, 8(2), 25-48. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/1380

Al Quntar, Salam et al. (2015, September): Responding to a Cultural Heritage Crisis: The Example of the Safeguarding the Heritage of Syria and Iraq Project. Near Eastern Archaeology, 78(3), 154-160. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5615/neareastarch.78.3.0154

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (2015, Spring): Hizballah, the Jihad in Syria, and Commemorations in Lebanon. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 19(1), 8-36. URL: http://www.rubincenter.org/2015/07/hizballah-the-jihad-in-syria-and-commemorations-in-lebanon

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (2015, Spring): Shi’i Militias in Iraq and Syria. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 19(1), 79-83. URL: http://www.rubincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Session-2-Jawad-YC-au1-PDF.pdf

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (2016, Spring): The Jihadi Threat on Israel’s Northern Border. Middle East Review of International Affairs, 20(1), 22-34. URL: http://www.rubincenter.org/2016/05/the-jihadi-threat-on-israels-northern-border

Al-Tamimi, Aymenn Jawad (2016, August): Al-Qa`ida Uncoupling: Jabhat al-Nusra’s: Rebranding as Jabhat Fateh al-Sham. CTC Sentinel, 9(8), 16-20. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/CTC-SENTINEL_Vol9Iss86.pdf

Andersen, Lars Erslev (2017, Winter): The Mole and the Mallet: Islamic State and al-Qaeda in the “Thirty Years’ War” in the Middle East. Connections, 16(1), 7-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11610/Connections.16.1.01

Anzalone, Christopher (2015, April): Canadian Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria. CTC Sentinel, 8(4), 14-19. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/CTCSentinel-Vol8Issue42.pdf

Anzalone, Christopher (2016, Spring): The Multiple Faces of Jabhat al-Nusra/Jabhat Fath al-Sham in Syria’s Civil War. Insight Turkey, 18(2), 41-50. URL: http://www.academia.edu/28191649/The_Multiple_Faces_of_Jabhat_al-Nusra_Jabhat_Fath_al-Sham_in_Syrias_Civil_War

Arterbury, John (2016, November): Jund al-Aqsa: The Disappearance of a “Third-Way” Faction in Syria’s Conflict. Terrorism Monitor, 14(22), 5-7. URL: https://jamestown.org/program/jund-al-aqsa-disappearance-third-way-faction-syrias-conflict

Assi, Abbas; Worrall, James (2015): Stable Instability: The Syrian Conflict and the Postponement of the 2013 Lebanese Parliamentary Elections. Third World Quarterly, 36(10), 1944-1967. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1071661

Averre, Derek; Davies, Lance (2015, July): Russia, Humanitarian Intervention and the Responsibility to Protect: The Case of Syria. International Affairs, 91(4), 813-834. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12343

Awan, Imran (2017): Religion, Identity and Radicalisation: The Experiences of Young British Muslims of the Crises in Syria. Journal of Muslims in Europe, 6(1), 1-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/22117954-12341336

Azzam, Chantal (2014, October): Australian Foreign Fighters: The Long Reach of the Syrian Conflict. Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, 6(9), 9-13. URL: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CTTA-October14.pdf

Baev, Pavel K. (2015): Russia as Opportunist or Spoiler in the Middle East? The International Spectator, 50(2), 8-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/03932729.2015.1019250

Baev, Pavel (2015, December): Russian Intervention in Syria. Terrorism Monitor, 13(24), 3-5. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue24_01.pdf

Baken, Denise N.; Mantzikos, Ioannis (2015): Iraq and Syria: The Evolution of al Qaeda in the Land of the Two Rivers. In: Al Qaeda: The Transformation of Terrorism in the Middle East and North Africa. (PSI Guides to Terrorists, Insurgents, and Armed Groups). Santa Barbara; Praeger Security International, 131-142.

Bakker, Edwin; de Bont, Roel (2016): Belgian and Dutch Jihadist Foreign Fighters (2012-2015): Characteristics, Motivations, and Roles in the War in Syria and Iraq. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(5), 837-857. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09592318.2016.1209806

Balanche, Fabrice (2016, November): Arabs in the PYD-Controlled Area. In: Patrick Clawson (Ed.): Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation and Complications. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 150). Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 29-38. URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrian-kurds-as-a-u.s.-ally-cooperation-and-complications

Ball, Patrick (2016, October 19): Why just Counting the Dead in Syria won’t Bring them Justice. Foreign Policy. URL: http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/10/19/why-only-counting-the-dead-in-syria-wont-bring-them-justice-hrdag-pattern-analysis

Barber, Victoria (2015, December): The Evolution of Al Qaeda’s Global Network and Al Qaeda Core’s Position within it: A Network Analysis. Perspectives on Terrorism, 9(6), 2-35. URL: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/469

Basit, Abdul (2014, October): Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria – Why so many? Counter Terrorist Trends and Analysis, 6(9), 4-8. URL: http://www.rsis.edu.sg/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/CTTA-October14.pdf

Baxter, Kylie; Davidson, Renee (2016): Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Managing a Twenty-First Century Threat. Third World Quarterly, 37(8), 1299-1313. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2016.1159127

Baytiyeh, Hoda (2016): The Dilemma of Terrorist Retaliations against Schools in Sectarian Conflict Regions: The Case of Lebanon. Journal of Applied Security Research, 11(4), 402-421. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19361610.2016.1210480

Benjamin, Daniel; Simon, Steven (2016, January): The Global Terror Threat in 2016: A Forecast. CTC Sentinel, 9(1), 1-4. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/CTC-SENTINEL-Vol9Iss15.pdf

Berbers, Anna (2016, December): The News Framing of the “Syria Fighters” in Flanders and the Netherlands: Victims or Terrorists? Ethnicities, 16(6), 798-818. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/1468796815603753

Berman, Ilan (2016, Winter): Russia’s Risky Syria Strategy. The Journal of International Security Affairs, 30. URL: http://www.securityaffairs.org/issues/number-30/russias-risky-syria-strategy

Bertolotti, Claudio; Beccaro, Andrea (2015): Suicide Attacks: Strategy, from the Afghan War to Syraq and Mediterranean Region: A Triple Way to Read the Asymmetric Threats. Sicurezza, Terrorismo e Società, 2/2015, 21-59. URL: http://www.sicurezzaterrorismosocieta.it/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/Bertolotti_Beccaro_SicTerSoc_book-2.pdf

Boncio, Alessandro (2016): Italian Foreign Terrorist Fighters: A Quantitative Analysis of Radicalization Risk Factors. Sicurezza, Terrorismo e Società, 4, 7-19. URL: http://www.sicurezzaterrorismosocieta.it/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Italian-Foreign-Terrorist-Fighters-BONCIO.pdf

Borshchevskaya, Anna (2016, November): Russia, Syrian Kurds, and the Assad Regime. In: Patrick Clawson (Ed.): Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation and Complications. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 150). Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 46-51. URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrian-kurds-as-a-u.s.-ally-cooperation-and-complications

Brandon, James (2015, December): Europe’s Jihadist Pipeline to Syria. Terrorism Monitor, 13(24), 24-27. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue24_07.pdf

Breau, Susan (2016): Responsibilities Ignored? Syria and Iraq. In: The Responsibility to Protect in International Law: An Emerging Paradigm Shift. (Routledge Research in International Law). Abingdon: Routledge, 255-275.

Brownlee, Billie Jeanne (2015): The Revolution “From Below” and its Misinterpretations “From Above”: The Case of Syria’s Neglected Civil Society. Syria Studies, 7(1), 31-59. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/1189

Bunnik, Anno; de Zoete, Thomas (2015, September): The Gloves Come off: The Dutch Response to Jihadists in Syria and Iraq. Terrorism Monitor, 13(19), 3-5. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue19_01.pdf

Burton, James (2017, January): Why America should Care about the YPJ in Syria. Small Wars Journal, 1/2017. URL: http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/why-america-should-care-about-the-ypj-in-syria

Byman, Daniel (2015): The Homecomings: What Happens when Arab Foreign Fighters in Iraq and Syria Return? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(8), 581-602. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2015.1031556

Byman, Daniel (2016, Winter): Six Bad Options for Syria. The Washington Quarterly, 38(4), 171-186. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0163660X.2015.1125836 URL: https://twq.elliott.gwu.edu/sites/twq.elliott.gwu.edu/files/downloads/TWQ_Winter2016_Byman.pdf

Byman, Daniel (2016, Spring): The Jihadist Returnee Threat: Just how Dangerous? Political Science Quarterly, 131(1), 69-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/polq.12434

Byman, Daniel; Speakman, Sloane (2016, Summer): The Syrian Refugee Crisis: Bad and Worse Options. The Washington Quarterly, 39(2), 45-60. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0163660X.2016.1204352

Cafarella, Jennifer; Heras, Nicholas A.; Casagrande, Genevieve (2016, September 1): Al Qaeda Is Gaining Strength in Syria. Foreign Policy. URL: http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/09/01/al-qaeda-is-gaining-strength-in-syria

Çakmak, Cenap (2016): Turkish–Syrian Relations in the Wake of the Syrian Conflict: Back to Securitization? Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29(2), 695-717. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09557571.2015.1117922

Cagaptay, Soner (2016, November): U.S. Ties with Turkey and the Syrian Kurds. In: Patrick Clawson (Ed.): Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation and Complications. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 150). Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 12-19. URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrian-kurds-as-a-u.s.-ally-cooperation-and-complications

Carey, Sabine C.; Colaresi, Michael P.; Mitchell, Neil J. (2015, August): Governments, Informal Links to Militias, and Accountability. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 59(5), 850-876. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/0022002715576747

Carrion, Doris (2015): Jordan and Syrian Refugees: Avoiding the Worst Case Scenario. Middle East Law and Governance, 7(3), 319-335. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1163/18763375-00703004

Casana, Jesse (2015, September): Satellite Imagery-Based Analysis of Archaeological Looting in Syria. Near Eastern Archaeology, 78(3), 142-152. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5615/neareastarch.78.3.0142

Cecire, Michael (2016): Same Sides of Different Coins: Contrasting Militant Activisms between Georgian Fighters in Syria and Ukraine. Caucasus Survey, 4(3), 282-295. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/23761199.2016.1231382

Cepoi, Ecaterina (2013): The Rise of Islamism in Contemporary Syria: From Muslim Brotherhood to Salafi-Jihadi Rebels. Studia Politica: Romanian Political Science Review, 13(3), 549-560. URL: http://www.ssoar.info/ssoar/handle/document/44733

Chaziza, Mordechai (2016, Summer): Syria’s Civil War: Stage for Greater Chinese Involvement in the Middle East? Middle East Review of International Affairs, 20(2), 1-9. URL: http://www.rubincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/09/01_Chaziza-TM-au-2-TM-PDF.pdf

Clawson, Patrick (2016, November): U.S. Policy and the PYD. In: Patrick Clawson (Ed.): Syrian Kurds as a U.S. Ally: Cooperation and Complications. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Focus 150). Washington, DC: The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, 52-59. URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/syrian-kurds-as-a-u.s.-ally-cooperation-and-complications

Clarke, Michael (2016, February): Uyghur Militants in Syria: The Turkish Connection. Terrorism Monitor, 14(3), 8-11. URL: https://jamestown.org/program/uyghur-militants-in-syria-the-turkish-connection

Conduit, Dara (2016): The Patterns of Syrian Uprising: Comparing Hama in 1980-1982 and Homs in 2011. British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 44(1), 73-87. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/13530194.2016.1182421

Conduit, Dara (2016, Spring): The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and the Spectacle of Hama. The Middle East Journal, 70(2), 211-226. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3751/70.2.12

Cornell, Svante E. (2016, June): The Fallacy of “Compartmentalisation”: The West and Russia from Ukraine to Syria. European View, 15(1), 97-109. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12290-016-0400-z

Crone, Manni; Splidsboel-Hansen, Flemming (2017, Winter): Disunity in Global Jihad: A Preface. Connections, 16(1), 5-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11610/Connections.16.1.00

Dakhli, Leyla (2013): Tunisia and Syria: Comparing Two Years of Revolution. Middle East Critique, 22(3), 293-301. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19436149.2013.848617

Danti, Michael D. (2015, September): Ground-Based Observations of Cultural Heritage Incidents in Syria and Iraq. Near Eastern Archaeology, 78(3), 132-141. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5615/neareastarch.78.3.0132

Davis, Richard (2016): Governance Era – Part Two (February 2009 to December 2012): Building Hamastan, Egyptian and Syrian Revolutions, Pathway to Gaza War II. In: Hamas, Popular Support and War in the Middle East: Insurgency in the Holy Land. (Contemporary Terrorism Studies). Abingdon: Routledge, 153-169.

De Châtel, Francesca (2014): The Role of Drought and Climate Change in the Syrian Uprising: Untangling the Triggers of the Revolution. Middle Eastern Studies, 50(4), 521-535. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00263206.2013.850076

Della Ratta, Donatella (2015): Violence and Visibility in Contemporary Syria: An Ethnography of the “Expanded Places”. CyberOrient, 9(1). URL: http://www.cyberorient.net/article.do?articleId=9557

Del Re, Emanuela C. (2015): Female Combatants in the Syrian Conflict, in the Fight against or with the IS, and in the Peace Process. In: Seema Shekhawat (Ed.): Female Combatants in Conflict and Peace: Challenging Gender in Violence and Post-Conflict Reintegration. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 84-99. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137516565

de Roy van Zuijdewijn, Jeanine (2016, December): Terrorism and beyond: Exploring the Fallout of the European Foreign Fighter Phenomenon in Syria and Iraq. Perspectives on Terrorism, 10(6), 82-96. URL: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/559

Dostal, Jörg Michael (2014): Analyzing the Domestic and International Conflict in Syria: Are there Lessons from Political Science? Syria Studies, 6(1), 1-80. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/822

Draege, Jonas Bergan (2016, Spring): The Formation of Syrian Opposition Coalitions as Two-Level Games. The Middle East Journal, 70(2), 189-210. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3751/70.2.11

Dukhan, Haian (2014): Tribes and Tribalism in the Syrian Uprising. Syria Studies, 6(2), 1-28. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/897

Edelson, Chris; Starr-Deelen, Donna G. (2015, September): The Law: Libya, Syria, ISIS, and the Case against the Energetic Executive. Presidential Studies Quarterly, 45(3), 581-601. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/psq.12210

El Said, Hamed (2015): Foreign Terrorist Fighters: Terrorists or Freedom Fighters? In: Sara Zeiger; Anne Aly (Eds.): Countering Violent Extremism: Developing an Evidence-Base for Policy and Practice. [e-Book]. Abu Dhabi; Perth: Hedayah; Curtin University; People against Violent Extremism (PaVE), 21-30. URL: http://www.hedayahcenter.org/Admin/Content/File-23201691817.pdf

Eng, Brent; Martinez, Jose Ciro (2014, Winter): Starvation, Submission and Survival: Syria’s War through the Prism of Food. Middle East Report, 44. URL: http://www.merip.org/mer/mer273/starvation-submission-survival

Fangen, Katrine; Kolås, Åshild (2016): The “Syria Traveller”: Reintegration or Legal Sanctioning? Critical Studies on Terrorism, 9(3), 414-432. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/17539153.2016.1192260

Ferenzi, Steve (2016, May 23): Beyond Half-Measures: Influencing Syria’s Political Order through Non-State Proxies. Small Wars Journal, 5/2016. URL: http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/beyond-half-measures-influencing-syria%E2%80%99s-political-order-through-non-state-proxies

Franssens, Henrique (2015, Summer): Reducing the Risks Posed by Dutch Returnees from Syria by Transferring Germany’s Experiences in their Fight against the Radical Right to the Netherlands. Journal for Deradicalization, 3, 39-91. URL: http://journals.sfu.ca/jd/index.php/jd/article/view/17

Friedman, Yaron (2016): The Alawi Regime during the Syria Civil War 2013-2014: From Collapse to Fragile Stability. In: Carmela Lutmar; Benjamin Miller (Eds.): Regional Peacemaking and Conflict Management: A Comparative Approach. (Routledge Global Security Studies). Abingdon: Routledge, 180-199.

Friis, Simone Molin (2015, July): “Beyond Anything We Have Ever Seen”: Beheading Videos and the Visibility of Violence in the War against ISIS. International Affairs, 91(4), 725-746. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12341 URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/files/chathamhouse/field/field_document/INTA91_4_03_Friis.pdf

Fung, Courtney J. (2016): Global South Solidarity? China, Regional Organisations and Intervention in the Libyan and Syrian Civil Wars. Third World Quarterly, 37(1), 33-50. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/01436597.2015.1078230

Gade, Tine (2015): Sunni Islamists in Tripoli and the Assad Regime 1966-2014. Syria Studies, 7(2), 20-64. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/issue/view/116/showToc

Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed; Joscelyn, Thomas (2016, August 28): Rebranding Terror: Nusra’s Renaming Is Part of al Qaeda’s Plan. Foreign Affairs. URL: https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2016-08-28/rebranding-terror

Gohdes, Anita R. (2015, May): Pulling the Plug: Network Disruptions and Violence in Civil Conflict. Journal of Peace Research, 52(3), 352-367. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1177/0022343314551398

Grandi, Filippo (2016): Crossroads of Crisis: Yarmouk, Syria, and the Predicament of the Palestinian Refugees. In: Rami G. Khouri; Karim Makdisi; Martin Wählisch (Eds.): Interventions in Conflict: International Peacemaking in the Middle East. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 65-75. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137530820

Greenwood, Maja Touzari (2017, Winter): Islamic State and al-Qaeda’s Foreign Fighters. Connections, 16(1), 87-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11610/Connections.16.1.07

Guha-Sapir, Debarati et al. (2015): Civilian Deaths from Weapons Used in the Syrian Conflict. BMJ, 351, Article h4736. DOI: https:doi.org/10.1136/bmj.h4736 URL: https://orbi.ulg.ac.be/bitstream/2268/186326/1/Guha-Sapir%20et%20al,%20Civilian%20deaths%20from%20weapons%20used%20in%20the%20Syrian%20conflict%20-%202015.pdf

Guidetti, Mattia; Perini, Silvia (2015, Spring): Civil War and Cultural Heritage in Syria, 2011-2015. Syrian Studies Association Bulletin, 20(1). URL: https://ojcs.siue.edu/ojs/index.php/ssa/article/view/3115

Gurcan, Metin (2016, July): The Kurdistan Freedom Falcons: A Profile of the Arm’s-Length Proxy of the Kurdistan Workers’ Party. CTC Sentinel, 9(7), 24-27. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/CTC-SENTINEL_Vol9Iss79.pdf

Haddad, Bassam; Wind, Ella (2014): The Fragmented State of the Syrian Opposition. In: Mehran Kamrava (Ed.): Beyond the Arab Spring: The Evolving Ruling Bargain in the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 397-436.

Hamid, Shadi (2015): What is Policy Research for? Reflections on the United States’ Failures in Syria. Middle East Law and Governance, 7(3), 373-386. DOI: https:doi.org/10.1163/18763375-00703006 URL: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Hamid_Syria-and-policy-research.pdf

Harmanşah, Ömür (2015, September): ISIS, Heritage, and the Spectacles of Destruction in the Global Media. Near Eastern Archaeology, 78(3), 170-177. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5615/neareastarch.78.3.0170 URL: https://canvas.brown.edu/courses/974288/files/52615416/download?wrap=1

Haynes, Walter C. (2016, January-February): Jordanian Society’s Responses to Syrian Refugees. Military Review, 1-2/2016, 45-52. URL: http://usacac.army.mil/CAC2/MilitaryReview/Archives/English/MilitaryReview_20160228_art011.pdf

Heisbourg, François (2015, December-2016, January): The Strategic Implications of the Syrian Refugee Crisis. Survival, 57(6), 7-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/00396338.2015.1116144

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, April): Abu Abd Allah Al-Shami: A Leading Salafist Militant Commander in Syria. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(4). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/april-2015-briefs/#sthash.zpVhzChR.dpuf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, May): Syrian-Palestinian Commander Fights off Attacks by Islamic State in Damascus Suburb. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(5). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/may-2015-briefs/#sthash.diwT4rlB.dpuf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, July): Aleppan Folk Hero Muhanna Jaffala Leads Kata’ib Abu Amara Despite Assassination Attempt. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(7). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/july-2015-briefs/#sthash.zAhGIJwV.dpuf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, August): Jaysh al-Islam and the Battle for Damascus. Terrorism Monitor, 13(17), 3-5. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue17_01.pdf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, August): Prominent FSA Commander Lieutenant Colonel Jamil Ra’dun (and Recipient of U.S. Military Equipment) Assassinated in Turkey. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(8). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/august-2015-briefs/#sthash.9N1zYrvU.dpuf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, September): Syrian Opposition Leader Allied with Muslim Brotherhood Positions his Group to Receive U.S. Aid. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(9). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/september-2015-briefs/#sthash.4lMLjmmh.dpuf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, October): The IRGC’s Iraqi Point Men in Syria: Shaykh Auws al-Khafaji and Shaykh Ammar al-Lami. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(10). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/october-2015-briefs

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, November): The Syrian Regime’s Answer to the Islamic State: Major General Muhammad Khaddour. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(11). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/november-2015-briefs

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, December): Colonel Khazaal al-Sarhan: The Commander of the New Syrian Army. Militant Leadership Monitor, 6(12). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/december-2015-briefs

Heras, Nicholas A. (2015, December): Rebel Reaction to Russian Intervention. Terrorism Monitor, 13(24), 6-9. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue24_02.pdf

Heras, Nicholas A. (2016, April): Captain Hassan Ibrahim: Defacto Ambassador for Syria’s Southern Front. Militant Leadership Monitor Volume, 7(4). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/april-2016-briefs-free

Heras, Nicholas A. (2017, January): A Snapshot of Two Rebel Commanders Vying for Survival in Damascus Governorate. Militant Leadership Monitor, 7(12). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/brief-snapshot-two-rebel-commanders-vying-survival-damascus-governorate-free

Heras, Nicholas A. (2017, January): Resisting Al-Assad’s Advance: A Look at Two Rebel Commanders Inside Aleppo. Militant Leadership Monitor, 12(1). URL: https://jamestown.org/brief/resisting-al-assads-advance-look-two-rebel-commanders-inside-aleppo

Hinnebusch, Raymond (2015): Back to Enmity: Turkey-Syria Relations since the Syrian Uprising. ORIENT, 1/2015, 14-22. URL: https://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/6068

Hinnebusch, Raymond (2017): The Syrian Crisis and International Security. In: Myriam Dunn Cavelty; Thierry Balzacq (Eds.): Routledge Handbook of Security Studies. (2nd ed.). (Routledge Handbooks). Abingdon: Routledge, 291-301.

Hinnebusch, Raymond; Imady, Omar; Zintl, Tina (2016): Civil Resistance in the Syrian Uprising: From Peaceful Protest to Sectarian Civil War. In: Adam Roberts et al. (Eds.): Civil Resistance in the Arab Spring: Triumphs and Disasters. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 223-247.

Holman, Timothy (2015, July): The French Jihadist “Foreign Legion” in Syria and Iraq. Terrorism Monitor, 13(15), 5-7. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue15_02.pdf

Hudson, Leila (2015, Winter): Liquidating Syria, Fracking Europe. Middle East Policy, 22(4), 22-39. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mepo.12155

Hughes, Geraint (2016): Militias in Internal Warfare: From the Colonial Era to the Contemporary Middle East. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 27(2), 196-225. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/09592318.2015.1129171 URL: http://apcml.org/uploads/0b05852b862cd27455243569218e6b6ac3d6bb2c.pdf

Hunter, Shireen; Bowen, Andrew; Edelman, Scott (2015, December): Russia’s Middle East Strategy: Quo Vadis? Terrorism: An Electronic Journal and Knowledge Base, 4(4). URL: http://www.terrorismelectronicjournal.org/terrorism-journal-1/volume-iv-number-4/russia-middle-east-strategy

Imady, Omar (2014): How a Microfinance Network could have Preempted the Syrian Uprising. Syria Studies, 6(1), 81-122. DOI: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/823

Imady, Omar (2016): Organisationally Secular: Damascene Islamist Movements and the Syrian Uprising. Syria Studies, 8(1), 66-91. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/1313

Inter-University Center for Terrorism Studies, The (2015, December): Syria: Quo Vadis? Terrorism: An Electronic Journal and Knowledge Base, 4(4). URL: http://www.terrorismelectronicjournal.org/app/download/8711513782/53380_PIPS+Syria.pdf

Jackson, Kévin (2015, September): From Khorasan to the Levant: A Profile of Sanafi al-Nasr. CTC Sentinel, 8(9), 24-30. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/CTC-SENTINEL-8-918.pdf

Jager, Jeff (2016, October 17): Turkey’s Operation Euphrates Shield: An Exemplar of Joint Combined Arms Maneuver. Small Wars Journal, 10/2016. URL: http://smallwarsjournal.com/jrnl/art/turkey%E2%80%99s-operation-euphrates-shield-an-exemplar-of-joint-combined-arms-maneuver

Kanat, Kilic; Ustun, Kadir (2015, Winter): U.S.-Turkey Realignment on Syria. Middle East Policy, 22(4), 88-97. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mepo.12160

Käsehage, Nina (2017, February): De-Radicalising Militant Salafists. Perspectives on Terrorism, 11(1), 77-79. URL: http://www.terrorismanalysts.com/pt/index.php/pot/article/view/579

Khalaf, Rana (2015): Governance without Government in Syria: Civil Society and State Building during Conflict. Syria Studies, 7(3), 37-72. URL: https://ojs.st-andrews.ac.uk/index.php/syria/article/view/1176

Khatib, Hakim (2015): Political Instrumentalization of Islam in a Violent State Crisis: The Case of Syria. Journal of Applied Security Research, 10(3), 341-361. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/19361610.2015.1038769

Kibaroglu, Mustafa; Sazak, Selim C. (2015, Winter): Business as Usual: The U.S.-Turkey Security Partnership. Middle East Policy, 22(4), 98-112. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/mepo.12161 URL: http://www.mustafakibaroglu.com/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/Kibaroglu-Sazak-MEP-US-TurkeySecurityPartnership-December2005.pdf

King, Marcus DuBois (2016, Winter): The Weaponization of Water in Syria and Iraq. The Washington Quarterly, 38(4), 153-169. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1080/0163660X.2015.1125835 URL: https://twq.elliott.gwu.edu/sites/twq.elliott.gwu.edu/files/downloads/TWQ_Winter2016_King.pdf

Kinninmont, Jane (2015, September): Unrest in the Arab World: Why the 2011 Uprisings still Matter. International Affairs, 91(5), 1141-1149. DOI: http://doi.org/10.1111/1468-2346.12402

Komar, Rao; Borys, Christian; Woods, Eric (2017, February 10): The Blackwater of Jihad: A Consortium of Elite, Well-Paid Fighters from across the Former Soviet Union are Training Jihadis in Syria. Their Business Model could Go Global. Foreign Policy. URL: http://foreignpolicy.com/2017/02/10/the-world-first-jihadi-private-military-contractor-syria-russia-malhama-tactical

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Zambelis, Chris (2015, May): Syria’s Sunnis and the Regime’s Resilience. CTC Sentinel, 8(5), 5-9. URL: https://www.ctc.usma.edu/v2/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/CTCSentinel-Vol8Issue52.pdf

Zenn, Jacob (2015, May): Al-Qaeda-Aligned Central Asian Militants in Syria Separate from Islamic State-Aligned IMU in Afghanistan. Terrorism Monitor, 13(11), 8-10. URL: https://jamestown.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/TerrorismMonitorVol13Issue11_03.pdf

Grey Literature

Abo Naser, Metwaly; Katkhouda, Ryme; Hill, Devorah (2017, January): The Plight of Palestinian Refugees in Syria in the Camps South of Damascus. (NOREF Expert Analysis / swisspeace Syrian Voices on the Syrian Conflict Series). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Syria/Publications/The-plight-of-Palestinian-refugees-in-Syria-in-the-camps-south-of-Damascus

Akbulut, Hakan (2016, September): Die Syrienkrise: Die Auswirkungen auf die Beziehungen der EU und der NATO zur Türkei. (oiip Working Paper AP 90/2016). URL: http://www.oiip.ac.at/fileadmin/Unterlagen/Dateien/Arbeitspapiere/AP_90_Arbeitspapier_Auswirkungen_Syrienkrise_EU_NATO.pdf

Alaranta, Toni (2017, February): Turkish Troops in Syria: Is it all about the Kurds from now on? (FIIA Briefing Paper 214). URL: http://www.fiia.fi/en/publication/659/turkish_troops_in_syria

Al Jazeera Center for Studies (2015, July): Repercussions of Shifting Power in Syria. (AMEC, Trans.). (Position Paper). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2015/7/9/20157993245255734Syria.pdf

Al Jazeera Center for Studies (2015, August): What Does New Political Push Mean for Syria? (AMEC, Trans.). (Position Paper). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/positionpapers/2015/08/2015823105615868118.html

Al Jazeera Center for Studies (2015, December): Implications of Downed Russian Jet on Turkey-Russia Relations. (Position Paper). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/positionpapers/2015/12/201512211923765212.html

Al Jazeera Center for Studies (2016, September): Islamist Movements in Syria: Dynamics of Schism, Prospects of Reconciliation. (Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2016/09/islamist-movements-syria-dynamics-schism-prospects-reconciliation-160926094314583.html

Al-Khatib, Hady (2016, September): Examining the Chemical Attack in Sukkari District in Aleppo, September 6th 2016. Bellingcat. URL: https://www.bellingcat.com/news/mena/2016/09/23/examining-chemical-attack-sukkari-district-aleppo-september-6th-2016

al-Khoei, Hayder (2016, November): Syria, Iraq and the Struggle for Power: Intertwined Futures. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/syria-iraq-and-struggle-power-intertwined-futures

al-Koshak, Osama (2015, October): Mapping Southern Syria’s Armed Opposition. (Al Jazeera Center for Studies Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2015/10/2015101383740214464.html

Alzoubi, Zedoun (2015, October): Syrian Voices on the Syrian Conflict: Syrian Medical NGOs in the Crisis: Realities, Perspectives and Challenges. (NOREF Expert Analysis). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Syria/Publications/Syrian-medical-NGOs-in-the-crisis-realities-perspectives-and-challenges

Amarasingam, Amarnath et al. (2016, October 20): Who is Winning the Syrian Digital War? OpenCanada. URL: https://www.opencanada.org/features/who-winning-syrian-digital-war

Amnesty International (2015, October): “We had nowhere else to Go”: Forced Displacement and Demolitions in Northern Syria. (Report MDE 24/2503/2015). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/2503/2015/en

Amnesty International (2015, November): “Between Prison and the Grave”: Enforced Disappearances in Syria. (Report MDE 24/2579/2015). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/2579/2015/en

Amnesty International (2016, July): “Torture was my Punishment”: Abductions, Torture and Summary Killings under Armed Group Rule in Aleppo and Idleb, Syria. (Report MDE 24/4227/2016). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/4227/2016/en

Amnesty International (2016, August): “It Breaks the Human”: Torture, Disease and Death in Syria’s Prisons. (Report MDE 24/4508/2016). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/4508/2016/en

Amnesty International (2016, October): Appendix: Cases of Suspected Civilian Casualties in US-Led Combined Joint Task Force Attacks in Syria since 23 September 2014. (Report MDE 24/5037/2016). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/5037/2016/en

Amnesty International (2017, February): Human Slaughterhouse: Mass Hangings and Extermination at Saydnaya Prison, Syria. (Report MDE 24/5415/2017). URL: https://www.amnesty.org/en/documents/mde24/5415/2017/en

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS) (2011, August): Syria between Choices and the Possibilities of Change. (ACRPS Translation and English Editing Department, Trans.). (Special Files). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/f2de4ca0-b8d3-483a-b698-8a0d8a176947

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2015, September): Netanyahu’s Moscow Visit Cements Russian–Israeli Cooperation in Syria. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/de8d8bdd-63e6-44d1-8129-59b33293f693

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2015, September): Nowhere Left to Go: Syrian Refugees Head to Europe. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/a3b00c1b-17a2-4f6e-aad3-caed2ddcedba

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2015, September): The Limits and Possibilities of Russian Military Intervention in Syria. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/08f60080-b2a3-46de-9267-d37a9e9bc3f9

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2015, November): The Vienna Path: The Chances of a Solution and the Challenges for the Syrian Opposition. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/03f1d12c-d064-42b3-a507-d30232e7d5b7

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2015, November): The Vienna Talks: Political and Military Pathways in Syria are Inseparable. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/e896b30f-b94a-4350-81b2-df9d6c132ba1

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, January): The Middle East in the Final Year of the Obama Administration. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/bef952ff-e7ed-4588-98eb-1ca5d83e7d48

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, January): UN Resolution 2254 and the Prospects for a Resolution to the Syrian Crisis. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/944e892e-35d4-45e6-9940-605c6145813e

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, February): Geneva, Round III: A Peace Process Strangled at Birth. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/1d1adb82-e1bd-4008-9a85-ccc5b4058702

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, February): Russian Military Strategy across Syria, Negotiating Tactics in Geneva. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/188971b9-09f3-46e7-8409-02d12388d827

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, February): Turkey’s Difficult Choices in Syria. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/43054f04-ff91-4b97-a1b9-ac61a210639a

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, March): Russian Withdrawal from Syria: Is the Clock Ticking for Assad? (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/fed50292-307c-4677-a556-62e38e841462

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, March): Syria’s Kurds: Hopes of Independence Clash with the Reality of Geography and Demographics. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/f318bedc-49d3-4103-be35-30048852b102

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, April): A Deal between Turkey and the European Union: Selling Syrian Refugees Short. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/5315f5c3-e882-46c6-8a81-be519e65e4ed

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, April): The US and Russia Come to Terms on Assad’s Future. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/5ba1869a-2963-487f-9232-e30943f5f1c4

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, May): Aleppo Defies the Imposition of Russia’s Will on the Syrian People. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/3dec5ecb-b2bb-4e08-a48c-4599abd5ad38

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, May): Israel Exploiting the Syrian Crisis to Legitimize its Annexation of the Golan. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/0e7ac96d-d274-4007-9f97-44a9271cabd3

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, July): Potential Implications of U.S.-Russian Coordination in Syria. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/a79f652e-d754-4948-96b1-cf46573c8878

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, July): Syria’s Armed Uprising: The Status Quo. (Case Analysis). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/50ae2ff2-ad7e-426b-8104-c71cffccd7b9

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, August): The Battles to Break the Siege of Aleppo: Military and Political Implications. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/fa9e7c24-694c-4133-9c35-1e7e9b0b5c1c

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, September): Implications of Darayya Exiting the Syrian Conflict Equation. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/67ac8af1-4e03-481d-855b-1abf8af1db61

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, September): Motives for Turkey’s Military Intervention in Syria. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/87cf4cb0-25da-467e-b6bb-b994f5be8051

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2016, December): The Fall of Aleppo and the Moscow Declaration. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/74f84478-ecae-4642-b2a5-bf203a6a2784

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2017, January): A Russian-Turkish Ceasefire for Syria: The Chances of Success. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/af779396-50c3-4d0c-a70b-43cc9d5ea515

Arab Center for Research and Policy Studies (ACRPS), Policy Analysis Unit (2017, February): Syria after Astana. (Assessment Report). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/1fb54bb8-0c10-4b12-9f54-b70be1f91093

Archick, Kristin (Coordinator) et al. (2015, April): European Fighters in Syria and Iraq: Assessments, Responses, and Issues for the United States. (CRS Report for Congress R44003). URL: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R44003.pdf

ARK (2014, November): Anger, Betrayal and Mistrust: Public Reactions to the Initiation of Coalition Airstrikes in Syria. (Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/11/Anger-Betrayal-and-Mistrust.pdf

ARK (2015, July): “Enlist!”: Insights into the Syrian Regime’s Military Recruitment and Propaganda Strategy. (Spot Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/spot-report-regime-conscription

ARK (2015, July): Four Years in Crisis: Women’s Participation in Northwestern Syria. (Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/four-years-crisis

ARK (2015, August): Currency Warfare in Northwestern Syria: Public Reactions to the Replacement of the Syrian Pound with the Turkish Lira. (Spot Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/spot-report-currency-warfare-in-northwestern-syria

ARK (2016, February): The Geneva III Talks: The Syrian and International Media Conversation. (Spot Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/2016_02_02-ARK_Geneva_Spot_Report.pdf

ARK (2016, February): The Syrian Conflict: A Systems Conflict Analysis. (Report). URL: http://arkgroupdmcc.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/ARK-Syria-Conflict-Analysis-Digital-copy.pdf

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (2016, March): Unpacking the Regional Conflict System Surrounding Iraq and Syria: Part I: Characterizing the System. (NSI Study). URL: http://nsiteam.com/social/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Central-Middle-East-Conflict-System-Part-I-final.pdf

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (2016, March): Unpacking the Regional Conflict System Surrounding Iraq and Syria: Part II: Method for Assessing the Dynamics of the Conflict System, or, There are no Sides – only Interests. (NSI Study). URL: http://nsiteam.com/social/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Central-Middle-East-Conflict-System-part-II-final.pdf

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (Ed.) (2017, March): Turkish Interests in Syria and Iraq. (SMA Reach-back). URL: http://nsiteam.com/sma-reachback-r2ql6-turkish-interests-and-albab

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (2016, March): Unpacking the Regional Conflict System Surrounding Iraq and Syria: Part III: Implications for the Regional Future: Syria Example of Actor Interests, Resolve and Capabilities Analysis. (NSI Study). URL: http://nsiteam.com/social/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Central-Middle-East-Conflict-System-part-III-Syria-Use-Case-final.pdf

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (Ed.) (2016, December): Russian Interests in Syria. (SMA Reach-back). URL: http://nsiteam.com/sma-reachback-r2-special-russian-strategic-interests-in-syria

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (Ed.) (2016, December): Turkish Army Syrian Intervention. (SMA Reach-back). URL: http://nsiteam.com/sma-reachback-cell-ql2-turkish-army-syrian-intervention

Astorino-Courtois, Allison (Ed.) (2016, December): Influence Future of Syria. (SMA Reach-back). URL: http://nsiteam.com/sma-reachback-cell-v5-influence-future-of-syria

Atteridge, Amber (2016, Spring): Foreign Fighters Post Conflict: Assessing the Impact of Arab Afghans and Syrian-Iraqi Foreign Fighters on Global Security. (ICT Paper). URL: http://www.ict.org.il/Article/1660/foreign-fighters-post-conflict

Baev, Pavel K. (2015, February): Could Russia Become a Serious Spoiler in the Middle East? (PONARS Eurasia Memo No. 359). URL: http://www.ponarseurasia.org/memo/could-russia-become-serious-spoiler-middle-east

Baev, Pavel K. (2015, November): Russia’s Policy in the Middle East Imperilled by the Syrian Intervention. (NOREF Policy Brief). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Syria/Publications/Russia-s-policy-in-the-Middle-East-imperilled-by-the-Syrian-intervention

Bakker, Edwin; de Roy van Zuijdewijn, Jeanine (2015, October): Jihadist Foreign Fighter Phenomenon in Western Europe: A Low-Probability, High-Impact Threat. (ICCT Research Paper). DOI: https://doi.org/10.19165/2015.1.09

Balanche, Fabrice (2015, November): Why Now? The Syrian Refugee Flow to Europe. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, PolicyWatch 2515). URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/why-now-the-syrian-refugee-flow-to-europe

Balian, Hrair (2015, August): Why “No-Fly Zones” or “IS-Free Zones” are not a Solution in Syria. (NOREF Policy Brief). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Syria/Publications/Why-no-fly-zones-or-IS-free-zones-are-not-a-solution-in-Syria

Bar, Ido; Stang, Gerald (2016, April): Water and Insecurity in the Levant. (ISS Issue Brief No. 15). URL: http://www.iss.europa.eu/publications/detail/article/water-and-insecurity-in-the-levant

Barabandi, Bassam; Itani, Faysal (2015, August): Seizing Local Opportunities in Syria. (Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East Issue in Focus). URL: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/issue-briefs/seizing-local-opportunities-in-syria

Barak, Michael (2016, August): Has Al-Nusra Front Severed Ties with Al-Qaeda? – Implications and Significance. (ICT Articles). URL: https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1752/has-al-nusra-front-severed-ties-with-al-qaeda

Barak, Michael (2017, February): The “Bot Mujahideen” Telegram Channel. (ICT Articles). URL: https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1937/the-bot-mujahideen-telegram-channel

Barfi, Barak (2016, April): Ascent of the PYD and the SDF. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy Research Notes, No. 32). URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/ascent-of-the-pyd-and-the-sdf

Barfi, Barak (2017, February): An Uncertain Future for Syria’s Kurds. (James A. Baker III Institute for Public Policy Issue Brief). URL: http://www.bakerinstitute.org/research/uncertain-future-syrias-kurds

Barrett, Roby C. (2016): The Collapse of Iraq and Syria: The End of the Colonial Construct in the Greater Levant. (JSOU Report 16-1). URL: http://jsou.libguides.com/ld.php?content_id=18599334

Bassiri Tabrizi, Aniseh; Pantucci, Raffaello (Eds.) (2016, August): Understanding Iran’s Role in the Syrian Conflict. (RUSI Occasional Paper). URL: https://rusi.org/publication/occasional-papers/understanding-irans-role-syrian-conflict

Becker, Petra; Stolleis, Friederike (2016, December): The Crushing of Syria’s Civil Actors: Survival of Grassroots Structures is Crucial for Country’s Future. (SWP Comments 2016/C 55). URL: https://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publication/the-crushing-of-syrias-civil-actors

Ben Yaakov, Uri (2017, January): Terrorism – Imposters and Deception on the Internet. (ICT Articles). URL: https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1910/terrorism-imposters-and-deception-on-the-internet

Ben Yaakov, Uri; Lev, Arava; Wyss, Michel D. (2017, January): The December 2016 Berlin Vehicular Ramming Attack: An Analysis. (ICT Report). URL: https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1924/december-2016-berlin-vehicular-ramming-attack

Berti, Benedetta (2016, September): How does the Syrian Civil War End for Hezbollah? (FPRI E-Notes). URL: http://www.fpri.org/article/2016/09/syrian-civil-war-end-hezbollah

Bidinger, Sarah et al. (2015, July): Protecting Syrian Refugees: Laws, Policies, and Global Responsibility Sharing. (Boston University School of Law Report). URL: http://www.bu.edu/law/files/2015/07/FINALFullReport.pdf

Bishara, Azmi (2015, November): Russian Intervention in Syria: Geostrategy is Paramount. (ACRPS Research Paper). URL: http://english.dohainstitute.org/release/64ab5040-e267-46a2-a875-bc21ae76e66f

Bjorn, Falcon (2016, October): Who Bombs Civilians in Syria: Profiles of 116 RuAF Officers (Infographics). Inform Napalm. URL: https://informnapalm.org/en/russian-bombs-civilians

Blockmans, Steven (2016, November): Can the EU Help Prevent further Conflict in Iraq and Syria? (CEPS Commentary). URL: https://www.ceps.eu/publications/can-eu-help-prevent-further-conflict-iraq-and-syria

Bodansky, Yossef (2015, September): Russia, Syria, and the Crossroads of Strategic Development. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 378). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/193912/378_Bodansky.pdf

Bodansky, Yossef (2015, October): The Russian Deployment in Syria and Iraq Makes its Presence Felt. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 379). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/194054/379_Bodansky.pdf

Bodansky, Yossef (2016, January): The Evolution of Russian, Syrian, and Iranian Actions against the Jihadist Movements and Turkish-U.S. Responses. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 394). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/394_Bodansky.pdf

Bodansky, Yossef (2016, March): The End is Nigh. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 408). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/408_Bodansky.pdf

Borshchevskaya, Anna; Gordon, Philip (2016, March): Putin’s Middle East Policy: Causes and Consequences. [Video]. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, PolicyWatch 2593). URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/putins-middle-east-policy-causes-and-consequences

Brandt, Jessica; McKenzie, Robert L. (2016, December): Addressing the Syrian Refugee Crisis. (Brief; Brookings Big Ideas for America Series). URL: https://www.brookings.edu/research/addressing-the-syrian-refugee-crisis-recommendations-for-the-next-administration

Bryant, Valarie T. (2014): The Effect of State Killing of Civilians on Anti-State Violence: A Case Study of Syria. (ESOC Paper). URL: https://esoc.princeton.edu/files/effect-state-killing-civilians-anti-state-violence-case-study-syria

Bucala, Paul (2017, February): Iran’s New Way of War in Syria. (ISW / CT Report). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/irans-new-way-war-syria

Butter, David (2015, June): Syria’s Economy: Picking up the Pieces. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/syrias-economy-administrative-institutions

Butter, David (2016, March): Salvaging Syria’s Economy. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/salvaging-syrias-economy

Cafarella, Jennifer (2015, June): The Threat of New Al-Qaeda Leadership: The Case of Syria’s Abu Mohammed Al-Joulani. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/threat-new-al-qaeda-leadership-case-syrias-abu-mohammed-al-joulani

Cafarella, Jennifer; Casagrande, Genevieve (2015, October): Syrian Opposition Guide. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/syrian-opposition-guide

Cafarella, Jennifer; Casagrande, Genevieve (2016, February): Syrian Armed Opposition Forces in Aleppo. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/syrian-armed-opposition-forces-aleppo

Cafarella, Jennifer; Casagrande, Genevieve (2016, March): Syrian Armed Opposition Powerbrokers. (ISW Middle East Security Report 29). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/report/syrian-armed-opposition-powerbrokers-0

Cafarella, Jennifer; Gambhir, Harleen; Zimmerman, Katherine (2016, February): Jabhat al Nusra and ISIS: Sources of Strength. (ISW / CTP, U.S. Grand Strategy: Destroying ISIS and al Qaeda, Report Three). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/report/jabhat-al-nusra-and-isis-sources-strength

Cafarella, Jennifer; Kozak, Christopher (2015, June): Likely Courses of Action in the Syrian Civil War June–December 2015. URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/likely-courses-action-syrian-civil-war-june-december-2015

Cagaptay, Soner (2016, September): After the Jarabulus Offensive: How Far will Turkey Shift its Syria Policy? (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, Policy Notes, No. 28). URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/after-the-jarabulus-offensive-how-far-will-turkey-shift-its-syria-policy

Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) (2016, January): The Foreign Fighters Phenomenon and Related Security Trends in the Middle East: Highlights from the Workshop. (World Watch: Expert Notes Series Publication No. 2016-01-01). URL: https://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/pblctns/wrldwtch/2016/20160129-en.pdf

Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) (2016, May): Al-Qaeda, ISIL and their Offspring: Understanding the Reach and Expansion of Violent Islamist Extremism: Highlights from the Workshop. (World Watch: Expert Notes Series Publication No. 2016-05-02). URL: https://www.csis-scrs.gc.ca/pblctns/wrldwtch/2016/2016-05-02/20160502-en.php

Canna, Sarah (Ed.) (2016, December): Question (V2): What are the Key Factors that would Impact the Wave of Violent Extremism and Ideological Radicalism that Affect the Sunni Community? (SMA Reach-back). URL: http://nsiteam.com/social/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/V2-Report-Final-Update-7Nov16.pdf

Carrion, Doris (2015, September): Syrian Refugees in Jordan: Confronting Difficult Truths. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/syrian-refugees-jordan-confronting-difficult-truths

Carter Center, The (2015, July): Syria: Options for a Political Transition. (Report). URL: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/conflict_resolution/syria-conflict/options-for-political-transition-in-syria-jul-2015-en.pdf

Carter Center, The (2016, June): Syria’s Transition: Governance & Constitutional Options under U.N. Security Council Resolution 2254. (Working Paper). URL: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/conflict_resolution/syria-conflict/principles-and-constitutional-provisions-may-8-2016.pdf

Carter Center, The (2016, November): Syria: Aleppo and beyond. (Brief). URL: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/pdfs/peace/conflict_resolution/syria-conflict/syria-aleppo-and-beyond-nov-30-2016.pdf

Casagrande, Genevieve (2015, December): The Syrian Opposition’s Political Demands. (ISW Chart). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/syrian-opposition%E2%80%99s-political-demands

Casagrande, Genevieve (2016, November): The Road to ar-Raqqah: Background on the Syrian Democratic Forces. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/road-ar-raqqah-background-syrian-democratic-forces

Chabkoun, Malak (2016, March): Analysis: Continued Marginalization of Syrians is Key Problem. (Aljazeera Center for Studies Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2016/03/analysis-continued-marginalization-syrians-key-problem-160314083402883.html

Chalmers, Malcolm (2015, November): UK Air Strikes in Syria: Time for a Decision? (RUSI Briefing Paper). URL: https://rusi.org/sites/default/files/201511_bp_uk_air_strikes_in_syria.pdf

Choucair, Chafic (2016, June): Hezbollah in Syria: Gains, Losses and Changes. (Aljazeera Center for Studies Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2016/6/1/694b753fbf784a838e3c81673f2996ce_100.pdf

Connable, Ben (2015): From Negative to Positive Stability: How the Syrian Refugee Crisis Can Improve Jordan’s Outlook. (RAND Research Reports, RR-1069-MCIA). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/RR1069

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2015, June): Creating a Strategy for Iraq, Syria, and the War against ISIL: A Need for Change, Integrity, and Transparency. Testimony presented before the House Committee on Foreign Affairs, Subcommittee on the Middle East and North Africa, June 3, 2015. URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/creating-strategy-iraq-syria-and-war-against-isil-need-change-integrity-and-transparency

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2015, September): Constructing a New Syria? The Growing Impact of the Civil War. (CSIS Report). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/constructing-new-syria-dealing-real-outcome-%E2%80%9Cisis-war%E2%80%9D

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2015, October): Negotiating a “Peace” in Syria: Between whom and for what? (CSIS Commentary). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/negotiating-%E2%80%9Cpeace%E2%80%9D-syria-between-whom-and-what

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2015, November): Creeping Incrementalism: U.S. Strategy in Iraq and Syria from 2011 to 2015. (CSIS Working Draft). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/creeping-incrementalism-us-strategy-iraq-and-syria-2011-2015

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2015, December): ISIS and “Failed State Wars” in Syria and Iraq. (CSIS Working Draft). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/isis-and-%E2%80%9Cfailed-state-wars%E2%80%9D-libya-syria-iraq-and-yemen

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2016, January): Risks and Instability in the Middle East and North Africa in 2016. (CSIS Working Draft). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/risks-and-instability-middle-east-and-north-africa-2016

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2016, February): The Human Cost of War in the Middle East: A Graphic Overview. (CSIS Working Draft). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/human-cost-war-middle-east-graphic-overview

Cordesman, Anthony H. (2016, March): The Comparative Metrics of ISIS and “Failed State Wars” in Syria and Iraq. (CSIS Working Draft). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/comparative-metrics-isis-and-failed-state-wars-syria-and-iraq-0

Cordesman, Anthony H.; Nerguizian, Aram (2017, January): The Case for and against a “Realist” Strategy in Syria. (CSIS Report). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/case-and-against-realist-strategy-syria

Covington, S. R. (2015, December): The Meaning of Russia’s Campaign in Syria. (Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School Paper). URL: http://belfercenter.ksg.harvard.edu/publication/26092/meaning_of_russias_campaign_in_syria.html

Czuperski, Maksymilian et al. (2017): Breaking Aleppo. (Atlantic Council Report). URL: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/reports/breaking-aleppo

Dalton, Melissa G. (2016, December): What Options do we Have in Syria? (CSIS Report). URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/what-options-do-we-have-syria

Dalton, Melissa G. (2017, February): Defeating Terrorism in Syria: A New Way Forward. Testimony presented before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation, and Trade, February 14, 2017. URL: https://www.csis.org/analysis/defeating-terrorism-syria-new-way-forward

Dawson, Lorne L.; Amarasingam, Amarnath; Bain, Alexandra (2016, July): Talking to Foreign Fighters: Socio-Economic Push versus Existential Pull Factors. (TSAS Working Paper Series, No. 16-14). URL: http://tsas.ca/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/TSASWP16-14_Dawson-Amarasingam-Bain.pdf

Dessì, Andrea (2015, December): Radicalisation in the Mediterranean Region: Old and New Drivers. (Documenti IAI 15 | 27). URL: http://www.iai.it/en/pubblicazioni/radicalisation-mediterranean-region

Djerejian, Edward P. et al. (2017, February): The Syrian Crisis: Policy Options for the Trump Administration: A Conference Report by Rice University’s Baker Institute Center for the Middle East. (Policy Report). URL: http://www.bakerinstitute.org/research/syrian-crisis-policy-options-trump-administration

Dobbins, James; Gordon, Philip; Martini, Jeffrey (2015): A Peace Plan for Syria. (RAND Perspectives, PE-182-RC). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/PE182

Dobbins, James; Gordon, Philip; Martini, Jeffrey (2016): A Peace Plan for Syria II: Options for Future Governance. (RAND Perspectives, PE-202-RC). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/PE202

Dobbins, James; Gordon, Philip; Martini, Jeffrey (2017): A Peace Plan for Syria III: Agreed Zones of Control, Decentralization, and International Administration. (RAND Perspectives, PE-233-RC). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/PE233 URL: http://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE233.html

Duyvesteyn, Isabelle; Peeters, Bram (2015, October): Fickle Foreign Fighters? A Cross-Case Analysis of Seven Muslim Foreign Fighter Mobilisations (1980-2015). (ICCT Research Paper). DOI: https://doi.org/10.19165/2015.1.07

El-Badawy, Emman; Comerford, Milo; Welby, Peter (2015, October): Inside the Jihadi Mind: Understanding Ideology and Propaganda. (Tony Blair Faith Foundation Report). URL: http://tonyblairfaithfoundation.org/religion-geopolitics/reports-analysis/report/inside-jihadi-mind

Fakude, Thembisa (2016, August): Jabhat al-Nusraa and the End of Al-Qaeda? (Aljazeera Center for Studies Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/en/reports/2016/08/clone.of.jabhat-al-nusraa-al-qaeda-160809131503049.html

Fainberg, Alisa (2017, Winter): Here we Come: The Evolution of Foreign Fighters’ Flow to Syria and Iraq in 2013-2016. (ICT Research Paper). URL: https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1954/the-evolution-of-foreign-fighters

Friedman, Brandon; Rabi, Uzi (2017, January): Sectarianism and War in Iraq and Syria. (FPRI E-Notes). URL: http://www.fpri.org/article/2017/01/sectarianism-war-iraq-syria

Garfinkle, Adam (2015, October): Putin, Obama, and the Middle East. (FPRI E-Notes). URL: http://www.fpri.org/article/2015/10/putin-obama-and-the-middle-east

Garfinkle, Adam (2016, October): The Chemistry of Syrian Lies and U.S. Credulity Revealed. (FPRI E-Notes). URL: http://www.fpri.org/article/2016/10/chemistry-syrian-lies-u-s-credulity-revealed

Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed (2015, June): Admitting Syrian Refugees: The Intelligence Void and the Escalating Homeland Security Threat. Testimony presented before the House Committee on Homeland Security, Subcommittee on Counterterrorism and Intelligence, June 24, 2015. URL: http://docs.house.gov/meetings/HM/HM05/20150624/103655/HHRG-114-HM05-Wstate-Gartenstein-RossD-20150624.pdf

Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed et al. (2015, September): The War between the Islamic State and al-Qaeda: Strategic Dimensions of a Patricidal Conflict. (Valens Global, SMA Support to SOCCENT Study). URL: http://www.tbo.com/assets/pdf/TB212921.PDF

Ghazzawi, Razan; Mohammad, Afra; Ramadan, Oula (2015, October): “Peacebuilding Defines our Future now”: A Study of Women’s Peace Activism in Syria. (Badael Foundation Report). URL: http://badael.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/10/Syria_october22.pdf

Gobat, Jeanne; Kostial, Kristina (2016, June): Syria’s Conflict Economy. (IMF Working Paper WP/16/123). URL: https://www.imf.org/external/pubs/cat/longres.aspx?sk=44033

Gordon, Philip (2015, December): Syria: The Need for Diplomacy and De-Escalation. (CFR Policy Innovation Memorandum No. #55). URL: http://www.cfr.org/syria/syria-need-diplomacy-de-escalation/p37326

Gunes, Cengiz; Lowe, Robert (2015, July): The Impact of the Syrian War on Kurdish Politics across the Middle East. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/impact-syrian-war-kurdish-politics-across-middle-east

Gutman, Roy (2015, July): Forgotten Lessons: In Syria, U.S. Repeats Afghanistan Mistakes. (Aljazeera Center for Studies Report). URL: http://studies.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2015/7/6/20157612326411734Forgotten%20Lessons.pdf

Haines, John R. (2016, January): A Method to the Madness: The Logic of Russia’s Syrian Counterinsurgency Strategy. (FPRI E-Notes). URL: http://www.fpri.org/article/2016/01/method-madness-logic-russias-syrian-counterinsurgency-strategy

Hajjar, Bahjat et al. (2017, January): Perceptions of Governance: The Experience of Local Administrative Councils in Opposition-Held Syria. (Swiss Peace Report). URL: http://www.swisspeace.ch/fileadmin/user_upload/pdf/Mediation/WOTRO_Report_The_Experience_of_Local_Administrative_Councils_in_Oppositionheld_Syria.pdf

Hallaj, Omar Abdulaziz (2015, May): The Balance-Sheet of Conflict: Criminal Revenues and Warlords in Syria. (NOREF / Clingendael Institute Report). URL: https://www.clingendael.nl/publication/balance-sheet-conflict-criminal-revenues-and-warlords-syria

Hanauer, Larry (2016): Israel’s Interests and Options in Syria. (RAND Perspectives, PE-185-DIA). DOI: https://doi.org10.7249/PE185

Harmer, Christopher (2015, November): U.S. Options for a Syria No-Fly Zone. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/us-options-syrian-no-fly-zone

Heras, Nicholas A. (2016, May): From the Bottom, up: A Strategy for U.S. Military Support to Syria’s Armed Opposition. (CNAS Report). URL: https://www.cnas.org/publications/reports/from-the-bottom-up-a-strategy-for-u-s-military-support-to-syrias-armed-opposition

Hof, Frederic C. et al. (2016, March): The Kremlin’s Actions in Syria: Origins, Timing, and Prospects. (Dinu Patriciu Eurasia Center Report). URL: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/reports/the-kremlin-s-actions-in-syria-origins-timing-and-prospects

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2015, December): If the Dead Could Speak: Mass Deaths and Torture in Syria’s Detention Facilities. (Report). URL: https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/12/16/if-dead-could-speak/mass-deaths-and-torture-syrias-detention-facilities

Human Rights Watch (HRW) (2016, December): Russia/Syria: War Crimes in Month of Bombing Aleppo: UN General Assembly Should Organize Emergency Special Session. (News Report). URL: https://www.hrw.org/news/2016/12/01/russia/syria-war-crimes-month-bombing-aleppo

Humud, Carla E.; Blanchard, Christopher M.; Nikitin, Mary Beth D. (2016, September): Armed Conflict in Syria: Overview and U.S. Response. (CRS Report for Congress RL33487). URL: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/mideast/RL33487.pdf

Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic (2016, February): Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Deaths in Detention in the Syrian Arab Republic. (Thematic Report A/HRC/31/CRP.1). URL: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A-HRC-31-CRP1_en.pdf

Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic (2016, February): Report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian Arab Republic. (Report A/HRC/31/68). URL: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/HRBodies/HRCouncil/CoISyria/A-HRC-31-68.pdf

Institute for the Study of War (2015, November): Russo-Turkish Tensions since the Start of the Russian Air Campaign. (Timeline). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russo-turkish-tensions-start-russian-air-campaign

Institute for the Study of War (ISW) Research Team (2015, September): International Community’s Position on Syrian President Bashar al-Assad. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/international-community’s-position-syrian-president-bashar-al-assad-september-30-2015

International Alert (2016): Why Young Syrians Choose to Fight: Vulnerability and Resilience to Recruitment by Violent Extremist Groups in Syria. (Research Summary). URL: http://www.international-alert.org/publications/why-young-syrians-choose-fight

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2015, September): New Approach in Southern Syria. (Middle East Report N°163). URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/syria/new-approach-southern-syria

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2016, February): Arsal in the Crosshairs: The Predicament of a Small Lebanese Border Town. (Crisis Group Middle East Briefing N°46). URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/lebanon/arsal-crosshairs-predicament-small-lebanese-border-town

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2016, March): Russia’s Choice in Syria. (Middle East Briefing N°47). URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/syria/russia-s-choice-syria

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2016, November): Turkey’s Refugee Crisis: The Politics of Permanence. (Europe Report N°241). URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/europe-central-asia/western-europemediterranean/turkey/turkey-s-refugee-crisis-politics-permanence

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2017, February): Watch List 2017. URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/global/3-watch-list-2017

International Crisis Group (ICG) (2017, March): Hizbollah’s Syria Conundrum. (Middle East Report N°175). URL: https://www.crisisgroup.org/middle-east-north-africa/eastern-mediterranean/lebanon/175-hizbollah-s-syria-conundrum

Itani, Faysal (2015, April): Defeating the Jihadists in Syria: Competition before Confrontation. (Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East Issue in Focus). URL: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/issue-briefs/defeating-the-jihadists-in-syria-competition-before-confrontation

Itani, Faysal; Stein, Aaron (2016, May): Turkey’s Syria Predicament. (Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East Issue Brief). URL: http://www.atlanticcouncil.org/publications/issue-briefs/turkey-s-syria-predicament

Jenkins, Brian Michael (2015): How the Current Conflicts are Shaping the Future of Syria and Iraq. (RAND Perspectives, PE-163-RC). URL: http://www.rand.org/pubs/perspectives/PE163.html

Jenkins, Brian Michael (2015, November): The Dynamics of the Conflicts in Syria and Iraq and the Threat Posed by Homegrown Terrorists and Returning Western Fighters. (RAND Testimonies, CT-443). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/CT443

Jenkins, Brian Michael (2015, November): The Implications of the Paris Terrorist Attack for American Strategy in Syria and Homeland Security. (RAND Testimonies, CT-445). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/CT445

Joffé, George (2016, June): Can Europe and the U.S. Disengage from the Middle East? (NOREF Expert Analysis). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Publications/Can-Europe-and-the-U.S.-disengage-from-the-Middle-East

Jones, Seth G. (2015, April): Historical Lessons for the Wars in Iraq and Syria. (RAND Testimonies, CT-431). URL: http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT431.html

Jones, Seth G. (2015, June): The Terrorism Threat to the United States and Implications for Refugees. (RAND Testimonies, CT-433). URL: http://www.rand.org/pubs/testimonies/CT433.html

Jones, Seth G. (2015, November): The Syrian Refugee Crisis and U.S. National Security. (RAND Testimonies, CT-444). DOI: https://doi.org/10.7249/CT444

Kagan, Frederick W.; Kagan, Kimberly (2015, September): Putin Ushers in a New Era of Global Geopolitics. (ISW Warning Intelligence Update). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/putin-ushers-new-era-global-geopolitics

Kagan, Frederick W. et al. (2016, January): Al Qaeda and ISIS: Existential Threats to the U.S. and Europe. (ISW / CTP, U.S. Grand Strategy: Destroying ISIS and al Qaeda, Report One). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/report/al-qaeda-and-isis-existential-threats-us-and-europe

Kagan, Frederick W. et al. (2016, January): Competing Visions for Syria and Iraq: The Myth of an Anti-ISIS Grand Coalition. (ISW / CTP, U.S. Grand Strategy: Destroying ISIS and al Qaeda, Report Two). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/report/competing-visions-syria-and-iraq-myth-anti-isis-grand-coalition

Kaim, Markus; Tamminga, Oliver (2015, November): Russia’s Military Intervention in Syria: Its Operation Plan, Objectives, and Consequences for the West’s Policies. (SWP Comments, 2015/C 48). URL: http://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publications/swp-comments-en/swp-aktuelle-details/article/russias_military_intervention_in_syria.html

Keatinge, Tom (2015, July): Identifying Foreign Terrorist Fighters: The Role of Public-Private Partnership, Information Sharing and Financial Intelligence. (ICCT / RUSI Research Paper). DOI: https://doi.org/10.19165/2015.1.06

Kepel, Gilles; Balanche, Fabrice; Decottignies, Olivier (2015, November): After Paris: French Voices on the Challenge of ISIS, Syria, Iraq, and Islamist Terrorism. [Video]. (The Washington Institute for Near East Policy, PolicyWatch 2526). URL: http://www.washingtoninstitute.org/policy-analysis/view/after-paris-french-voices-on-the-challenge-of-isis-syria-iraq-and-islamist

Khaddour, Kheder (2015, November): Assad’s Officer Ghetto: Why the Syrian Army Remains Loyal. (Carnegie Middle East Center Regional Insight). URL: http://carnegie-mec.org/2015/09/30/assad-s-officer-ghetto-why-syrian-army-remains-loyal/iigr

Khalaf, Rana (2016, December): Governing Rojava: Layers of Legitimacy in Syria. (Chatham House Middle East and North Africa Programme, Syria and its Neighbours Research Paper). URL: https://www.chathamhouse.org/publication/governing-rojava-layers-legitimacy-syria

Khatib, Lina (2015, October): The Russian-Iranian Quagmire in Syria. (Arab Reform Initiative Article). URL: http://www.arab-reform.net/en/node/807

Kodmani, Bassma (2015, May): Syrian Voices on the Syrian Conflict: A Solution for Syria. (NOREF Expert Analysis). URL: http://noref.no/Regions/Middle-East-and-North-Africa/Syria/Publications/A-solution-for-Syria

Komar, Rao (2016, June 16): The Thuraya Network: A Satellite Data Network for the Syrian Rebels. Bellingcat. URL: https://www.bellingcat.com/news/mena/2016/06/16/thuraya-network-satellite-data-network-syrian-rebels

Kozak, Chris (2016, May): Russia and Turkey Escalate: Russia’s Threat to NATO Goes beyond Eastern Europe. (ISW Backgrounder). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/russia-and-turkey-escalate-russia%E2%80%99s-threat-nato-goes-beyond-eastern-europe

Kozak, Christopher (2017, March): Iran’s Assad Regime. (ISW / CT Report). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/irans-assad-regime

Laub, Zachary (2016, December): Who’s Who in Syria’s Civil War. (CFR Backgrounder). URL: http://www.cfr.org/syria/s-syrias-civil-war/p38607

Lefèvre, Raphaël (2015, August): Islamism within a Civil War: The Syrian Muslim Brotherhood’s Struggle for Survival. (Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World, Rethinking Political Islam Series Working Paper). URL: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Syria_Lefevre-FINALE.pdf

Levrant, Peter et al. (2016, March): Looking through the Window Darkly: A Snapshot Analysis of Rape in Syria 2011-2015. URL: http://syrianaccountabilityproject.org/looking-through-the-window-darkly-a-snapshot-analysis-of-rape-in-syria-by-syrian-accountability-project.pdf

Lin, Christina (2015, May): Chinese General: Anti‐Chinese Uyghurs are in Syria’s Anti‐Assad Force. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 353). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/191076/353_Lin.pdf

Lin, Christina (2015, June): Is a Eurasian Military Bloc Arising to Combat the Army of Conquest in Syria? (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 357). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/191530/357_Lin%20(2).pdf

Lin, Christina (2015, September): With Assad’s Permission, China can Send Troops to Combat Chinese Terror Group TIP in Syria. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 377). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/193829/377_Lin.pdf

Lin, Christina (2015, November): UN Chief, China and Germany, Prioritize Syrian Stability to Resolve Refugee Crisis. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 389). URL: https://www.files.ethz.ch/isn/194764/389_Lin.pdf

Lin, Christina (2016, February): Asian Rebels in Aleppo, Western Blind Spot. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 405). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/405_Lin-1.pdf

Lin, Christina (2016, April): New Airliner Threat: Arming Syrian Jihadists with US Anti-Aircraft Missiles. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 416). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/416_Lin.pdf

Lin, Christina (2016, October): Risky Business: Is US Supporting Anti-Chinese Militants in Syria? (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 452). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/452_Lin.pdf

Lin, Christina (2016, December): How the US Ends up Training al-Qaeda and ISIS Collaborators. (ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, Issue No. 461). URL: http://www.ispsw.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/461_Lin-1.pdf

Lister, Charles (2016, July): Profiling Jabhat al-Nusra. (The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World Analysis Paper No. 24). URL: https://www.brookings.edu/research/profiling-jabhat-al-nusra

Lister, Charles (2016, November): The Free Syrian Army: A Decentralized Insurgent Brand. (The Brookings Project on U.S. Relations with the Islamic World Analysis Paper No. 26). URL: https://www.brookings.edu/research/the-free-syrian-army-a-decentralized-insurgent-brand

Lucas, Scott (2015, December): The Effects of Russian Intervention in the Syria Crisis. (GSDRC Report). URL: http://www.gsdrc.org/publications/the-effects-of-russian-intervention-in-the-syria-crisis

Lund, Aron (2016, December): Into the Tunnels: The Rise and Fall of Syria’s Rebel Enclave in the Eastern Ghouta. (The Century Foundation Report). URL: https://tcf.org/content/report/into-the-tunnels

Mahmoud, Rustum; Rosiny, Stephan (2015, October): Opposition Visions for Preserving Syria’s Ethnic-Sectarian Mosaic. (GIGA Working Papers, No. 279). URL: https://www.giga-hamburg.de/de/publication/opposition-visions-for-preserving-syrias-ethnic-sectarian-mosaic

Malmvig, Helle (2016, December): Israel’s Conflicting Interests in the Syrian War. (DIIS Policy Brief). URL: http://www.diis.dk/en/research/hanging-in-the-balance

Mans, Kim; Tuitel, Ruben (2016, October): Foreign Fighters in their own Words: Using YouTube as a Source. (ICCT Report). URL: https://icct.nl/publication/foreign-fighters-in-their-own-words-using-youtube-as-a-source

Marks, Monica (2016): ISIS and Nusra in Turkey: Jihadist Recruitment and Ankara’s Response. (ISD Report). URL: http://www.strategicdialogue.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/ISDJ4677_Turkey_R1_WEB.pdf

Martin, Patrick (2015, October): Iraq after Russian Intervention in Syria. (ISW Scene-Setter). URL: http://www.understandingwar.org/backgrounder/iraq-after-russian-intervention-syria

Masbah, Mohammed (2015, October): Moroccan Foreign Fighters: Evolution of the Phenomenon, Promotive Factors, and the Limits of Hardline Policies. (SWP Comments, 2015/C 46). URL: http://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publications/swp-comments-en/swp-aktuelle-details/article/moroccan_foreign_fighters.html

McDonald, Alun et al. (2017, March): Invisible Wounds: The Impact of Six Years of War of the Mental Health of Syria’s Children. (Report). URL: http://www.savethechildren.org/atf/cf/%7B9def2ebe-10ae-432c-9bd0-df91d2eba74a%7D/INVISIBLE%20WOUNDS%20FINAL%20020317.PDF

Meier, Oliver (2016, April): The Danger of Chemical Weapons in Syria: Unfinished Disarmament and International Control Efforts. (SWP Comments, 2016/C 23). URL: http://www.swp-berlin.org/en/publications/swp-comments-en/swp-aktuelle-details/article/the_danger_of_chemical_weapons_in_syria.html

Meininghaus, Esther; Heinemann-Grüder, Andreas (2017, February): Safe Zones for Syria: Mitigating the Humanitarian Crisis. (BICC Policy Brief). URL: https://www.bicc.de/publications/publicationpage/publication/safe-zones-for-syria-mitigating-the-humanitarian-crisis-684

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About the Compiler: Judith Tinnes, Ph.D., is a Professional Information Specialist. Since 2011, she works for the Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information (ZPID). Additionally, she serves as Information Resources Editor to ‘Perspectives on Terrorism’. In her editorial role, she regularly compiles bibliographies and other resources for Terrorism Research. She wrote her doctoral thesis on Internet usage of Islamist terrorists and insurgents (focus: media-oriented hostage takings). E-mail: [email protected]

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Perspectives on Terrorism is  a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies

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