Perspectives_on_Terrorism_XI_4_-_Neil_G._Bowie

Research Notes

Terrorism Events Data: An Inventory of Databases and Data Sets, 1968-2017

by Neil G. Bowie

Abstract

This Research Note presents 60 key databases, data sets and chronologies on terrorism events data developed since 1968. It describes design characteristics of these quantitative data collections and points to their usefulness for research on terrorism and counter-terrorism. The information presented here is divided into three categories:

(i) Academic, Think Tank and Independent Databases (n =43)

(ii) Commercial Databases (n = 10) and

(iii) Governmental Databases (n = 7).

In a few cases, the scope of the datasets includes related forms of armed conflict. In most cases, there are clickable links to the data storage sites. All website links have been validated as of 11 August 2017.

Keywords: terrorism, counter-terrorism, databases, datasets, chronologies

Introduction

The author of this Research Note published in 2011 an inventory of major databases on terrorism.[1] It contained a description of twenty databases. The current inventory lists three times as many, but describes them in much less detail.[2] Some of these datasets take terrorist incidents as main units of analysis, others are more interested in the terrorist actors (mainly terrorist groups). Yet others focus on attack type (e.g. hijackings). Databases where victims are the main focus are still rare (e.g. items 5, 17, 43). The same goes for databases that focus on state terrorism (e.g. item 31). Most of the databases are constructed on the basis of open source information - in most cases media reports - in many ways a problematic source since it presupposes, among other things, freedom of the press and presence of local journalists or foreign correspondents willing and able to cover terrorist events. The most basic form of data listings consists of chronologies (e.g. items 7, 8, 32); the more sophisticated relational databases contain multiple coded variables which can be analysed in various combinations and allow geographical and graphic visualizations e.g. item 19). Given the data processing problems, there is usually a time-lag of one year or more between recordings of data and their presentation in aggregate form.

The present list of databases should allow researchers comparisons between (some) of their elements. This can increase confidence (or mistrust) in quantitative findings. A recent example of this has been provided by Brian J. Phillips who tested the hitherto unchallenged claim by David C. Rapoport that up to 90 percent of all terrorist groups do not survive beyond their first year of operations. Prof. Phillips compared studies based on the eight largest databases covering the period 1968 - 2013 and found that none of the databases could confirm Rapoport’s educated guess made 25 years ago. In fact, the results regarding the survival rate of terrorist groups beyond their first year ranged from 24 to 74 percent, with the average being 52 percent.[3]

Despite shortcomings, databases are useful in many ways. There are, for instance, strong indications that some acts of terrorism that are receiving saturation coverage in the media are contagious, with one group (or lone actor) imitating tactics (e.g. driving trucks into groups of people) learned from others. Datasets on geographically separated incidents can reveal worldwide terrorist campaigns directed via social media and made ‘attractive’ to would be imitators by the reward of mass media coverage.

The present list covers only open source datasets. How they compare to restricted, classified datasets held by governments is largely unknown. Presumably intelligence agency datasets, based on secretly obtained information, focus strongly on individual terrorists, terrorist groups and networks and their financial, logistical, operational and (rogue) state supporters. What they are unlikely to cover is the counter-terrorism operations of state actors (see items 10,11,15). Terrorist campaigns and counter-terrorist campaigns interact but to study that interaction one needs comparable longitudinal data on both non-state and government actions and reactions. Most databases covered here originate in the Western world (esp. USA, UK and Israel). Many focus more on international terrorism than on domestic terrorism while a few provide regional coverage (e. g. item 36). Africa (except North Africa) receives little coverage while Europe receives much. There is only one database that covers state terrorism (item 31). The attribution for responsibility for acts of terrorism in insurgencies, irregular warfare and in other forms of armed conflict is difficult and coverage in most databases is uneven or even totally absent.

Maintaining databases is time-consuming and costly and several databases have been discontinued due to lack of funding, political pressure or the departure of the driving spirit behind them. Missing, incomplete or untrustworthy data plague many databases and detract from their reliability – which makes cross-checking between databases all the more mandatory for researchers. Despite such shortcomings, aggregate data are significantly valuable as they allow trend analyses and, to some extent, even forecasting. The integration of major datasets with artificial intelligence holds great promise for terrorism prevention.

The databases and data sets presented below are not a definitive listing of all terrorism events data sets but offer a representative cross-section of what is currently available to researchers in terrorism studies. Additional terrorism databases and data sets will be listed in a future Research Note in this journal by the same compiler.

(i) Academic, Think Tank and Independent Databases

1. Armed Conflict Location and Event Data Project (ACLED)

Host Institution: University of Surrey, United Kingdom. The ACLED data set is directed by Professor Clionadh Raleigh (University of Sussex).

Scope: Political violence and protest in Africa (1997 – Present) and Asia from 2010.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.acleddata.com

E-Mail: http://acleddata.com/contact/

Summary: The ACLED data set comprises political violence data from Africa, both historical and real-time, covering the period 1997 until the present. In addition, data covering Asia from 2010 onwards is currently being coded. The data set also provides real-time updates. The ACLED project produces an annual data set. Events data includes: date, location, type of violence and actors.

2. The ASN Safety Database

Host Institution: The Aviation Safety Network. (International Collaboration).

Scope:Logs airliner, military transport aircraft and corporate jet aircraft safety occurrences.

Access: Free.

Website: https://aviation-safety.net/

E-Mail: https://aviation-safety.net/about/contact.php

Summary: The ASN Safety Database has over 21,162 logged safety occurrence incidents dating back to 1919. Records coded, relate to hijackings, airline accidents and other incidents. Sources used to populate the database include data from official Government authorities, safety boards, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) and the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).

3. Big, Allied and Dangerous (BAAD) Database 1 - Lethality Data, 1998-2005.

Host Institution: The Project on Violent Conflict (PVC) Rockefeller College of Public Affairs & Policy, University of Albany, State University of New York (SUNY), United States.

Scope: Terrorist groups, ideologies, fatalities, religion.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.albany.edu/pvc/data.shtml

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Big, Allied and Dangerous (BAAD) Database’s principal focus is on terrorist organisational characteristics. The database is divided into two data sets. BAAD1 codifies the activities of 395 terrorist organisations between 1998 and 2005. BAAD2 codifies the organisational variables of terrorist groups, for example: size, structure, ideology, financial support and social network data. Further development of the BAAD datasets in conjunction with the University of Maryland’s National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START) is now available via their new Big, Allied and Dangerous (BAAD) online platform. See: https://www.start.umd.edu/baad/database

4. BBC News Database of Jihadists

Host Institution: British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Database of United Kingdom individuals successfully prosecuted since 2014 for Jihadist activities and individuals who have died or are in the Syria or Iraq region.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-32026985

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: This interactive BBC News database presents users with a series of interactive filters detailing individuals who have either been convicted, have died or are still at large in the Syria/Iraq region in connection with jihadist activities. The filters include, for example, runaway teenagers, suicide bombers, female extremists and returnees among several other search criteria. A short synopsis of each case is generated by the database, with hyperlinks to BBC News website pages. The database contains 269 jihadists. The database is generated from open source material and BBC research.

5. B’Tselem Statistical Data Sets

Host Institution: B’Tselem - The Israeli Information Center for Human Rights in the Occupied Territories, Jerusalem, Israel.

Scope: Fatalities on Palestinian, Israeli and third party nationals killed in conflict between Israel and Palestinians.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.btselem.org/statistics

E-Mail: Mail:@btselem.org

Summary: The B’Tselem Statistical Data Sets records fatalities resulting from the on-going conflict between Israel and Palestinians. Key variables include the name of the person(s) killed, residence, event date, location and the agent that caused the fatality. The database records incidents since 2000. Further detailed statistical data on fatalities are listed within B’Tselem’s website.

6. Canadian Incident Database (CIDB)

Host Institution: Canadian Network for Research on Terrorism, Security and Society (TSAS), Canada.

Scope: Incidents of terrorism and extreme crime incidents in Canada from 1960 onwards.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.extremism.ca/default.aspx

E-Mail: N/A Twitter: @tsasnetwork

Summary: The Canadian Incident Database (CIDB) provides data on terrorism and extreme crime incidents in Canada dating back to 1960. Source data is un-classified. The CIDB project was developed in conjunction with the Canadian Safety and Security Program’s (CSSP) National Security Data Initiative (NDSI). Five Canadian Universities work with the TSAS CIDB to support the database: Simon Fraser University, the University of British Colombia, the University of Waterloo, Carleton University and the Université de Montréal.

7. Chronology of Jihadism in Western Europe 1994–2007: Planned, Prepared and Executed Terrorist Attacks

Host Institution: [Academic Publication] Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 31, Iss. 10, 2008. pp.924-946. Taylor & Frances Online.

Scope: Jihadism in Western Europe 1994 – 2007.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10576100802339185

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: This Chronology of Jihadism in Western Europe 1994-2007, prepared by Petter Nesser, lists attacks by salafi-jihadis (attempted and executed attacks), using open source material.

8. Chronological List of Armenian Terrorist Activities from 1918 to 1989

Host Institution: Armenian Genocide Resource Center.

Scope: Armenian terrorist activity 1918-1989.

Access: Free.

Website: http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2009/01/2694-chronological-list-of-armenian.html

E-Mail: See website..

Summary: This blog site holds a collection of resources on Armenian terrorist activity including a Chronology of Armenian Terrorist Activities from 1918-1999. Other source material includes historical newspaper screen shots from the 1800’s onwards and research papers related to Armenian activities.

9. Conflict Archive on the INternet (CAIN) Conflict and Politics in Northern Ireland

Host Institution: Ulster University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Scope: Information and source material on conflict and politics in Northern Ireland since 1968.

Access: Free.

Website: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/

E-Mail: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/eMail:/geneMail:.htm

Summary: The CAIN archive originally founded in 1996, provides a large array of data sets, databases, bibliographies and conflict studies on the conflict in Northern Ireland since 1968. Recent additions to the archives include photographic images and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) with area maps of deaths related to the conflict. In addition, public records connected to the conflict and commemoration of survivors and victims is also held within the CAIN archive.

10. Comprehensive Database of African Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy

Host Institution: The Institute for Security Studies (ISS), Pretoria, South Africa.

Scope: African counter-terrorism law, policy, technical and training issues.

Access: Free.

Website: https://issafrica.org/ctafrica/african-national-legislation

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Comprehensive Database of African Counter-Terrorism Law and Policy holds a wide-ranging collection of legislation relating to counter-terrorism in the continent of Africa. In addition, the database contains policy documents, regional and international instruments, training manuals and technical assistance. The database can be queried using the variables: keywords, title, language, country and year. Documents produced are in .PDF format.

11. Countermeasures against Extremism and Terrorism (CoMET) Database

Host Institution: START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, University of Maryland, Maryland (MD), United States.

Scope: Records countermeasures by government and non-government agencies against terrorist and extremist activity.

Access: Upon request.

Website: http://www.start.umd.edu//news/new-database-provides-insights-terrorism-countermeasures

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Countermeasures against Extremism and Terrorism (CoMET) Database logs countermeasures by both Government and non-government actors against the operations of UK Home-grown Islamic Violent Extremist (HIVE-UK), al-Qaida in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) and Anti-Abortion Extremists (AAE) in the United States. Statistical data is also produced.

12. Criminal Proceedings: A Timeline of U.S. Terror Cases

Host Institution: Anti-Defamation League (ADL). United States.

Scope: American Muslim extremists charged, convicted or sentenced on terrorism related offences.

Access: Free.

Website: http://archive.adl.org/main_Terrorism/american_muslim_extremists_criminal_proceedings.htm?Multi_page_sections=sHeading_2

E-Mail: http://support.adl.org/site/PageNavigator/contactus.html

Summary: Criminal Proceedings: A timeline of U.S. Terror Cases is produced by the United States Anti-Defamation League (ADL). The timeline covers the period 2002-2012 and lists American Muslim extremists who have been charged with terrorism-related incidents. It also includes individuals convicted and sentenced. Each respective yearly list provides chronological entries of terrorism-related criminal proceedings.

13. Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Attack (CrITerA) Database

Host Institution: Center for Terrorism and Intelligence Studies (CETIS), San Jose (CA), United States.

Scope: Terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure.

Access: Contact CETIS.

Website: http://www.cetisresearch.org/research.htm

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Critical Infrastructure Terrorist Attack (CrITerA) Database codes terrorist attacks against critical infrastructure. The database does not record every terrorist incident against critical infrastructure. The CrITerA database holds in excess of 3,000 cases covering the temporal period 1933 until present day.

14. Combating Terrorism Center (CTC) Harmony Database

Host Institution: The Combating Terrorism Center (CTC), United States Military Academy at West Point, New York (NY), United States.

Scope: Inner-functioning of al-Qa’ida and associate movements.

Access: Free.

Website: https://ctc.usma.edu/programs-resources/harmony-program

E-Mail: https://ctc.usma.edu/contact

Summary: The CTC Harmony database program allows analysts and researchers to access material sourced from the U.S. Department of Defence’s Harmony database. The programs aim is to contextualise primary source material related to the inner functions of al-Qaida, its associates and related terrorism and security issues. The database contains thousands of documents, personal letters and multimedia. The CTC produce analytical reports to accompany respective material. The Harmony material was acquired during operations in Afghanistan, Iraq and other military theatre. The CTC acknowledges that the material collected for the Harmony database was not collected on a scientific basis.

15. Counter-Terrorism Initiatives (African Union) Resource Database

Host Institution: Canadian Global Security. Canada

Scope: Counter-Terrorism policy oriented research within the African Union

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.canadianglobalsecurity.com/project/ctiau/

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Counter-Terrorism Initiatives (African Union) Resource Database allows users to filter and search for policy orientated Counter-terrorism initiatives within the African Union.

16.Database on Terrorism in Germany (DTG)

Host Institution: German Institute on Radicalization and De-Radicalization Studies, Germany.

Scope: Right-wing extremism and Jihadism in Germany.

Access: Contact Institute.

Website: http://www.girds.org/projects/database-on-terrorism-in-germany-right-wing-extremism

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Database on Terrorism in Germany (DTG) focuses on two main streams: right-wing extremism (DTGrwx) and Jihadism terrorism in Germany (DTG-JI). The database contains quantitative data incidents on right-wing terrorism (explosive incidents). Variables include data on right-wing arson attacks, murders, kidnappings, extortions and robberies – all dating back from 1971- present. Data on right-wing terrorist actors are also held (1963 - present). The database holds qualitative data including media reports, court verdicts and interviews with victims and perpetrators.

17. Domestic Terrorist Victims Dataset (Version 1)

Host Institution: Luis de la Calle and Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca, Centre for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain.

Scope: Domestic Terrorism Killings, Western Europe (1965-2005).

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/datasets.asp

E-Mail: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/people.asp

Summary: The Domestic Terrorist Victims dataset (Version 1) has coded 4,955 terrorist killings in Western Europe over a temporal period of thirty years (1965-1995). Data set variables include location, date, victim name(s), perpetrators (terrorist group), and method of killing. Source data is derived from monographs, local media and victims lists.

18. Global Pathfinder

Host Institution: International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR), S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, Singapore.

Scope: Global terrorism and political violence, with specific emphasis on Asia-Pacific.

Access: Subscription-based.

Website: https://www.rsis.edu.sg/research/icpvtr

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Global Pathfinder database holds a large array of data, particularly focusing on the Asia-Pacific region. This includes: terrorism events data, terrorist group profiles, counter-terrorism literature, training manuals and legal documentation. Reports, graphs and statistical data can also be generated.

19. Global Terrorism Database (GTD)

Host Institution: START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, Maryland (MD), United States.

Scope: Domestic and International Terrorism.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Global Terrorism Database (GTD) contains in excess of 170,000 terrorist incidents, covering the period 1970-2016. The data is unclassified. The early data for the GTD was sourced from the former Pinkerton’s Global Intelligence Services (PGIS) database (1970-1993). Building upon this foundation, the GTD was developed as a terrorism events database in its own right codifying events data retrospectively and in real-time. The GTD provides a detailed array of events data, incident summary and graphical functions. Further additions to the GTD include data sets previously held by the National Counterterrorism Center’s (NCTC) Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS).

20. Global Terrorism Index 2016

Host Institution: Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Scope: Summary of trends and patterns in terrorism covering the period 2000-2015 worldwide.

Access: Free.

Website: http://economicsandpeace.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Global-Terrorism-Index-2016.2.pdf

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: This annual publication by the Institute for Economics and Peace (Sydney, NSW, Australia) provides a large collection of statistical data and commentary derived from the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), at the University of Maryland. A comprehensive series of indexes ranks 163 countries and their impact upon terrorism.

21. The IAEA Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB)

Host Institution: International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria.

Scope: Monitors and records illicit trafficking of radioactive and nuclear materials world-wide.

Access: Restricted.

Website: http://www-ns.iaea.org/security/itdb.asp

E-Mail: official.Mail:@iaea.org

Summary: Established in 1995 by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Incident and Trafficking Database (ITDB) records illicit trafficking and movement incidents relating to radioactive and nuclear material as well as any other unauthorised activity. Primarily, the database’s remit is to prevent nuclear and radiological terrorism, and act as a system of alert to enhance overall systems of nuclear security.

22.The International Policy Institute for Counter-Terrorism, ICT’s Incidents and Activists Database

Host Institution: International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT), Interdisciplinary Center (IDC), Herzliya, Israel.

Scope: Domestic and International Terrorism.

Access: Free.

Website:http://www.ict.org.il/ResearchPublications/DatabaseReports/tabid/380/Default.aspx

E-Mail: http://www.ict.org.il/AboutICT/ContactUs/tabid/60/Default.aspx

Summary: Dating back to 1975, the ICT Database is one of the longest established databases on terrorism. The database holds in excess of 33,000 terrorist and counter-terrorist incidents. Reports generated from the ICT database contain a mixture of statistical data, chronological listings of terrorism events, narrative commentary and terrorism and counter-terrorism related news and regional developments.

23.Hate Symbols Database

Host Institution: Anti-Defamation League (ADL). United States.

Scope: White supremacist groups, movements and hate groups.

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.adl.org/education/references/hate-symbols?page=1

E-Mail: http://support.adl.org/site/PageNavigator/contactus.html

Summary: The Hate Symbols Database provides a series of hate symbols representing white supremacist groups and movements, including for example neo-Nazi groups and other violent extremists. The website explains the importance of symbols/flags and group identity as part of a wider form of communiqué. Also seE-https://www.adl.org/what-we-do/combat-hate/extremism-terrorism-bigotry

24. Iraq Body Count

Host Institution: Conflict Causalities Monitor LTD, London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Solely civilian violent deaths from the post-invasion of Iraq 2003.

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.iraqbodycount.org/database/

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Iraq Body Count (IBC) records solely civilian violent deaths from 2003 onwards in the post-invasion period of the Iraq war of 2003, as a result of military intervention by the United States and some of its allies.

25. Data Set: ISVG Violent Extremism Knowledge Base (VKB)

Host Institution: Institute for the Study of Violent Groups,

University of New Haven, Connecticut, (CT), United States.

Scope: Violent extremism and transnational crime.

Access: Upon request.

Website: http://www.isvg.org/capabilities-database-structure.php

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The ISVG relational database contains over 1500 variables relating to violent extremism and transnational crime. Open source data populating the database is eclectic. Information ranges from news media, private sector intelligence data, government and non-governmental (NGO) reports to court papers and third party data sets. The relational design of the database permits link association across the 223,000 incidents logged worldwide. A range of advanced functional operations provide temporal, link association, statistical and geographical visualisations.

26. John Jay and ARTIS Transnational Terrorism Database

Host Institution: The City University of New York, United States.

Scope: Islamist terrorists and associates.

Access: Free.

Website: http://doitapps.jjay.cuny.edu/jjatt/index.php

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The John Jay and ARTIS Transnational Database codes Islamist terrorists and associates who have committed acts of terrorism as part of a “core” network. The database codifies individuals based on their level of contribution to an attack. The database contains information on individual attributes, attack network data and terrorist group evolution data. The data sets are available in a .CSV and .XLS format, with accompanying codebooks. The project was funded by the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR).

27. MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base

Host Institution: Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT), Oklahoma, (OK), United States.

Scope: Domestic and international terrorism.

Access: Database dis-banded and ceased operating March 2008.

Website: N/A.

E-Mail: N/A.

Summary: The MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base (TKB) was an early pioneer in the operation of publicly available truly functioning terrorism knowledge bases. Despite the short life of the TKB (2004-2008) its content was detailed and highly interactive. Comprehensive data coverage included terrorist groups, group histories, affiliations, terrorism events data, and maps.

28. Monterey WMD Terrorism Database

Host Institution: Center for Nonproliferation Studies’ WMD Terrorism Research Program, Monterey Institute of International Studies, Monterey, California, (CA) United States.

Scope: Incidents relating to acquisition, possession, the threat and use of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) by sub-state actors.

Access: Restricted.

Website: http://wmddb.miis.edu/

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Monterey Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) Database codifies incidents by sub-state actors who acquire, possess, threaten and use Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). The database holds in excess of 1100 events dating back to 1900. Specific types of incidents would relate to the use of chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear materials (CBRN). The WMD Terrorism Database is hosted and operated by the Center for Nonproliferation Studies, at the Middlebury Institute of International Studies, Monterey, California, United States.

29. MPAC Post 9/11 Terrorism Incident Database

Host Institution: Muslim Public Affairs Council, Washington, D.C., United States.

Scope: Muslim and non-Muslim extremist acts and threats against the United States post 9/11.

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.mpac.org/publications/policy-papers/post-911-terrorism-database.php [Publication]

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The MPAC Post 9/11 Terrorism Incident Database contains two respective data sets on Muslim and non-Muslim acts and threats against the United States post 9/11. Recently, a third data set codifying Muslim extremist plots since the election of President Barack Obama has been added. The Muslim data set codifies incidents and plots originating both within and-out with the United States. The non-Muslim data set only records plots and terrorist events originating within the United States.

30. Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI) Database on Terrorist and Serious Criminal Attacks Against Public Surface Transportation

Host Institution: Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology (S&T) National Transportation Security Center of Excellence (NTSCOE), United States.

Scope: Attacks on public surface transportation.

Access: Contact Mineta Transportation Institute (MTI)

Website: https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/Database%20Gives%20Insight%20to%20Public%20Surface%20Transportation%20Attacks-MTI-Nov2013.pdf

[Publication]

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The MTI Database records terrorist attacks and serious crime on surface public transportation systems worldwide. The frequency and lethality of attacks are among many variables coded, as well as the location of bus/train stations and the type of devices used to carry out attacks. The first chronologies of public surface transportation attacks were published by MTI/NTSC in 1997. Data held dates back over forty years, detailing over 3,000 incidents.

31. Political Terror Scale (PTS)

Host Institution: University of North Carolina at Asheville, North Carolina, (NC), United States.

Scope: State terrorism and political violence worldwide.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.politicalterrorscale.org

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: Covering the period 1976-2014, the Political Terror Scale (PTS) measures annual levels of terrorism and political violence perpetrated by the state. The PTS scale ranges from Levels 1-5, with Level 5 the highest rating for political terror by the state against populations. In particular, the PTS places high importance on the level of physical integrity violations by the state.

32. Political Violence and Terrorism in Modern America: A Chronology

Host Institution: [Book Publication] Christopher Hewitt, Political Violence and Terrorism in Modern America: A Chronology. Praeger Security International (2005)

Scope: Chronology 1954-2005.

Access: N/A

Website: http://www.abc-clio.com/Praeger/product.aspx?pc=D5598C

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: A basic chronology of terrorist events in the United States and Puerto Rico (1954-1995).

33. Profiles of Incidents involving CBRN by Non-state actors (POICN) Database

Host Institution: START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, Maryland, (MD), United States.

Scope: Terrorism events data related to CBRN agents.

Access: Contact START.

Website: http://www.start.umd.edu/start/announcements/announcement.asp?id=412

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The POICN database is an open-source fully relational database recording terrorism events data with reference to Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear (CBRN) material and related weapons.

34. Replication Data: Revolutionary Terrorism in the Developed World, 1970-2000

Host Institution: [Publication] Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca, “Revolutionary Dreams and Terrorist Violence in the Developed World: Explaining Country Variation”, Journal of Peace Research, 46 (5) 2009: 687-706.

Scope: See summary below.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/datasets.asp

E-Mail: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/people.asp

Summary: The replication files and accompanying information used in this publication can be found at the web site cited above.

35.Replication Data: Rebels Without a Territory. An Analysis of Non-Territorial Conflicts in the World, 1970-1997.

Host Institution: [Publication] De la Calle, Luis and Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca. 2012. “Rebels Without a Territory. An Analysis of Non-territorial Conflicts in the World, 1970-1997”. Journal of Conflict Resolution. Online first: April 18, 2012.

Scope: See summary below.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/datasets.asp

E-Mail: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/people.asp

Summary: The replication files and accompanying information used in this publication can be found at the web site cited above.

36. South Asia Terrorism Portal

Host Institution: Institute for Conflict Management, New Delhi, India.

Scope: South Asia: domestic and international terrorism events data.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.satp.org

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The South Asia Terrorism Portal serves a large geographic expanse. Spatial coverage of terrorism events data is wide, ranging from Pakistan to Nepal and India to Sri Lanka among others. The SATP includes chronologies, statistical data, maps, graphs and detailed commentary on terrorist events within the region. A series of weekly, monthly and yearly reports is produced. The SATP was founded in 2000.

37.Terrorism, Counterterrorism and Radicalization (Research Database)

Host Institution: Centre for Terrorism and Counterterrorism (CTC), Leiden University, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Scope: Database of research projects on Terrorism, Counterterrorism and Radicalization in the Netherlands.

Access: Registration Required.

Website: http://www.terrorismdata.leiden.edu

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The research database Terrorism, Counterterrorism and Radicalization holds an extensive array of terrorism, counterterrorism and radicalization projects underway in The Netherlands. The key categories are: Divisions (Counterterrorism, Future forecasts, Polarization, Radicalization, Terrorism and Flemish-Dutch Network of the Terrorism Research Initiative), Researchers, Organizations and Groups, Areas (Geographic), Categories, Time Frames and Academic Disciplines.

38. The Terrorism and Extremist Violence in the United States (TEVUS) Database

Host Institution: START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, Maryland, (MD), United States.

Scope: Behavioural, geographic and temporal characteristics of extremist violence in the United States.

Access: Request form - http://www.start.umd.edu/tevus-portal-access-request

Website: http://www.start.umd.edu/tevus-portal

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The TEVUS database contains open-source data compiled from four related databases, dating back to 1970. These are The American Terrorism Study (ATS), The Global Terrorism Database (GTD), The U.S. Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) and the Profiles of Perpetrators of Terrorism in the United States (PPT-US). Key coded variables include incidents, temporal, behavioural and geographic characteristics of terrorism and extremist violence within the United States. Extensive other units of analysis can be queried on the database including: pre-incident activities and the identification of relationships between, for example, terrorist perpetrators and event incidents.

39.The Terrorism & Preparedness Data Resource Center (TPDRC)

Host Institution: University of Michigan’s Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), Michigan (MI), United States.

Scope: Domestic and international terrorism data.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu/icpsrweb/content/NACJD/guides/tpdrc.html

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Terrorism & Preparedness Data Resource Center (TPDRC) is a central archive and distribution mechanism for data generated by Government, NGO’s and researchers on domestic and international terrorism. Among a wide array of materials the TPDRC holds is data on international terrorism incidents, terrorist organisations, victim data and responses to terrorism.

40.Terrorism in Western Europe Events Data (TWEED)

Host Institution: Department of Comparative Politics, University of Bergen, Norway.

Scope: Internal Terrorism within 18 Western European Countries.

Access: Free.

Website: http://folk.uib.no/sspje/tweed.htm

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: This data set covers terrorist events data in eighteen Western European countries for the period 1950-2004. The TWEED data set covers internal terrorism events and excludes international acts of terrorism. Data used to populate the TWEED data sets is exclusively sourced from Keesing’s Records of World Events. The TWEED data set can be downloaded in SPSS format via the TWEED website. The code-book for the data set is also available from the Website.

41.United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB), 1990-2010

Host Institution: START National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, Maryland, (MD), United States.

Scope: Violent and non-violent criminal behaviour associated with far right-wing extremists groups in the United States.

Access: Contact START.

Website: http://www.start.umd.edu/research-projects/united-states-extremist-crime-database-ecdb-1990-2010

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The United States Extremist Crime Database (ECDB) 1990-2010 contains data on all publicly known violent and financial crimes by extremists with a connection or association with al-Qa’ida and AQAM – its associated movement. The database also codifies data on other extremist groups who form some association with Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and Animal Liberation groups. The database is relational in design. Key variables include actual incidents, perpetrators, victims and related organisations.

42.United States Political Violence Database

Host Institution: See: Dynamics of political instability in the United States, 1780-2010. Journal of Peace Research, 1-15, Sage (2012).

Scope: Political Violence events in the United States (1780-2010).

Access: Free.

Website: http://peterturchin.com/PDF/Turchin_JPR2012.pdf

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: The United States Political Violence Database is an amalgam of other research data and the authors own research. It codes political violence events data in the United States, such as acts of terrorism, lynching and riots for the period 1780-2010.

43.Victims of ETA dataset (2007)

Host Institution: Luis de la Calle and Ignacio Sánchez-Cuenca, Centre for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences, Fundación Juan March, Madrid, Spain.

Scope: All fatalities cause by Basque Nationalist Terrorist Organisation (1960-2006).

Access: Free.

Website: http://ic3jm.es/investigacion/dtv/datasets.asp

E-Mail: http://www.march.es/ceacs/proyectos/dtv/people.asp

Summary: This data set records the 834 incidents of individuals killed between by the Basque Nationalist Terrorist Organisation (ETA) between 1960-2006. The key unit of analysis is fatality.

(ii) Commercial Databases

44.Armed Conflict Database

Host Institution: International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS), London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Armed conflict world-wide, international and domestic terrorism events, insurgencies and civil wars.

Access: Subscription based.

Website: https://acd.iiss.org

E-Mail: via website.

Summary: The Armed Conflict Database (ACD) is a subscription based service covering international conflict, internal conflict and terrorism, dating back to 1997. The ACD provides a series of interactive web maps with accompanying variables, statistics and reports. In addition, advanced query and report functionality is provided. The database holds in excess of seventy conflict/terrorism data sets worldwide.

45. DOTS (Data on Terrorist Suspects) linked to ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events)

Host Institution: Vinyard Software Inc., Dunn Loring, Virginia (VA), United States.

Scope: International terrorism and transnational terrorism.

Access: Commercial data sets – payment required.

Website: http://www.vinyardsoftware.com

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Data on Terrorist Suspects (DOTS) data sets consists of a compendium of terrorist related information. This includes: biographic details on terrorist group leaders, individual perpetrators, alleged detainees and defendants, aliases, conspirators and kunya’s. The data is linked to variables primarily in ITERATE and other sources for the temporal period 1960-2016.

46. Global Extremism Monitor

Host Institution: Centre on Religion & Geopolitics (CRG) London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Tracks violent religious extremism and state responses globally.

Access: Free.

Website: http://www.religionandgeopolitics.org/global-extremism-monitor

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Global Extremism Monitor provides a monthly report in .PDF format detailing violent religious extremism and state responses to religious extremism. The reports provide, for example, detailed statistics on incidents, fatalities, graphical data and detailed contextualised narrative on areas of high intensity religious extremist activity throughout the world.

47.International Security & Counter-Terrorism Reference Center (ISCTRC)

Host Institution: EBSCO Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts (MA), United States.

Scope: Terrorism and conflict data (domestic and international) and risk management.

Access: Subscription based service.

Website: https://www.ebsco.com/products/research-databases/international-security-counter-terrorism-reference-center

E-Mail: https://www.ebsco.com/contact

Summary: The EBSCO International Security & Counter-Terrorism Reference Center (ISCTRC) full-text database is an open-sourced repository of data and information on conflict, terrorism, domestic security and risk management information. The database contains a wide variety of terrorism and homeland security related material including academic journals, books, reports, news feeds and summaries on individuals and organisations.

48.IntelCenter Database (ICD)

Host Institution: IntelCenter, Alexandria, Virginia (VA), United States.

Scope: International and domestic terrorist events, rebel incidents, country and groups/individual profiles.

Access: Subscription Required.

Website: https://intelcenter.com/

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The IntelCenter Database (ICD) holds in excess of 220,000 records on terrorism events and related areas. Some of the key ICD variables include: incident(s), photos/video, geospatial data, group profiles, logos and analysis documentation. Information is updated 24 hours a day, and includes client alert notification of significant terrorism events.

49.ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events)

Host Institution: Vinyard Software Inc., Dunn Loring, Virginia (VA), United States.

Scope: International Terrorism and transnational terrorism.

Access: Commercial data sets – payment required (US $ 50.- per annual dataset).

Website: http://www.vinyardsoftware.com

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The ITERATE (International Terrorism: Attributes of Terrorist Events) is one of the longest established data sets on international and transnational terrorism. The collection of ITERATE data sets covers terrorism events (textual data) from 1960-2007 and coded data from 1968-2016. The textual data form part of a series of periodic chronologies on terrorism published from 1968 onwards, available from Vinyard Software. The accompanying numeric data sets on terrorism and transnational terrorism events data is made up of four files: COMMON file, FATE file, HOSTAGE file and SKYJACK file. The data sources for these files are sourced from the ITERATE chronologies. A wide range of official Government sources and media sources are used to populate the data sets.

50. Jane’s Terrorism and Insurgency Centre, Event Database

Host Institution: IHS Markit, London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Non-state armed group events (domestic and international terrorism and insurgency).

Access: Commercial database – payment required.

Website: https://www.ihs.com/products/janes-terrorism-insurgency-intelligence-centre.html

E-Mail: https://www.ihs.com/about/contact-us.html

Summary: The Jane’s Terrorism and Insurgency Centre’s Events Database dates back to 1997. The key unit of analysis is the terrorist and insurgent event. Other variables include target, location, group information and number of casualties. In addition, subscription to the database provides other data such as country briefings, terrorist and insurgency group profiles, subject matter analysis and visualisation tools.

51.The Risk Advisory Terrorism Tracker

Host Institution: Risk Advisory Group plc/Aon, London, United Kingdom.

Scope: Domestic and international terrorism.

Access: Commercial database.

Website: https://www.terrorismtracker.com

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Risk Advisory Terrorism Tracker is a commercial database of worldwide terrorism events and terrorist plots. The temporal range for the database starts from the 1st January 2007 and is on-going. Each coded terrorist incident is geo-tagged to permit visual mapping of events. Timeline functionality and trend analysis is incorporated into the database’s functionality. The Terrorism Tracker database is produced in conjunction with the risk management company Aon plc.

52.Terrorism and Political Violence Risk Map 2016

Host Institution: Aon Plc. London, United Kingdom.

Scope: The unit of analysis measures risk of political violence towards international business.

Access: Free. [Publication]

Website: http://www.aon.com/terrorismmap/

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Aon Terrorism and Political Violence Risk Map provides data and information on the risk of terrorism and political violence across six countries specifically: Egypt, France, India, Saudi Arabia, Turkey and the United States, and other country data generally. Key areas of risk are measured against such variables such as: TPV Risk Rating, Key Belligerents, Terrorism Causalities and Comparable Security Environments.

53.Terror Attack Database

Host Institution: OodaLoop, Washington D.C., United States.

Scope: Terrorist Attacks Worldwide.

Access: Commercial Database – payment required.

Website: https://www.oodaloop.com/category/attack/

E-Mail: https://www.oodaloop.com/general-inquiry/

Summary: The Terror Attack Database formerly run by Terrorism.com holds in excess of 10,000 terrorism incidents.

(iii) Governmental Databases

54. Counter-Terrorism Statistics (Operation of Police Powers under the Terrorism Act 2000) United Kingdom

Host Institution: The Home Office, Office of the National Coordinator of Terrorist Investigations (United Kingdom).

Scope: Series of statistical data on terrorism arrests and their outcomes.

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/counter-terrorism-statistics

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: The Home Office (United Kingdom) produce an extensive series of quarterly statistical data reports relating to the Terrorism Act 2000 (TACT). The data includes arrests and outcomes of arrests. Further break-down of data on stop and searches is also provided. The format is a mixture of narrative analysis and statistical data tables available in various OpenDocument formats.

55. Country Reports on Terrorism 2016

Host Institution: United States Department of State, Washington D.C. United States.

Scope: Domestic and International Terrorism.

Access: Free. [Publication]

Website: https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/272488.pdf

E-Mail: https://register.state.gov/contactus/

Summary: The U.S. State Departments Country Reports on Terrorism is an annual publication, first produced in 2004. The format is mainly a narrative account of terrorism events by country. It also documents issues on legality, state sponsored terrorism, Weapon of Mass Destruction (WMD), terrorist ‘safe havens’ and State Department ‘Designated Foreign Terrorist Organisations’ (FTO). The Country Reports replaced, in 2004, the State Departments Patterns of Global Terrorism. The U.S. State Department is required by law to present the report to Congress by the 30th of April each year. In addition, the Country Reports on Terrorism is accompanied by an Annex of Statistical Information, including analysis. Since 2012, this has been produced by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START). See: https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/272485.pdf

56. The European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) 2017

Host Institution: Europol, The Hague, The Netherlands.

Scope: Terrorism events within the European Union

Access: Free. [Publication and on-line]

Website: https://www.europol.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/tesat2017.pdf

E-Mail: See Europol website: https://www.europol.europa.eu

Summary: The European Union Terrorism Situation and Trend Report (TE-SAT) is compiled by Europol from data provided by the European Union’s respective law enforcement and intelligence agencies. It is an annual publication. TE-SAT originated as a response to counter-terrorism responses to the 9/11 attacks on the United States in 2001. In addition to providing statistical data on terrorism events and data on arrest of suspects within the European Union, TE-SAT also provides narrative commentary on a wide range of terrorism related issues. These include: single-issues, right-wing terrorism, left-wing terrorism, religiously inspired terrorism and ethno-nationalist and separatist terrorism.

57. Listed Terrorist Entities

Host Institution: Public Safety Canada (Canadian Government), Canada.

Scope: Lists groups or individuals deemed by the Canadian Government to be associated with terrorism.

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/ntnl-scrt/cntr-trrrsm/lstd-ntts/index-en.aspx

E-Mail: - See: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/bt/cntct-en.aspx

Summary: The publicly accessible Listed Terrorist Entities provides information on groups and individuals deemed under Canadian legislation (the Anti-Terrorism Act) to be associated with terrorism. Key public information provided includes: aliases of groups or individuals, a description of the groups or individuals, a listing date and a review date. Individuals or groups officially listed are subject to potential seizure/restraint and can also include the forfeiture or seizure of assets. For detailed criteria for inclusion in the Listed Terrorist Entities see Public Safety Canada website. An agreed entity eligible for the Listed Terrorist Entities is also published in the Canada Gazette (http://www.gazette.gc.ca).

58. The RAND Database of Worldwide Terrorism Incidents (RDWTI)

Host Institution: The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, California, United States.

Scope: Domestic and International Terrorism

Access: Free.

Website: https://www.rand.org/nsrd/projects/terrorism-incidents.html

E-Mail: http://www.rand.org/nsrd/projects/terrorism-incidents/about/contact.html

Summary: The RDWTI is among the longest established and comprehensive data sets on domestic and international terrorism. The original RAND data sets on terrorism events data were established in 1972 and were known as The RAND Terrorism Chronology. The project was the result of a request to RAND from the United States Cabinet Committee to Combat Terrorism, following the 1972 Munich Olympic massacre and terrorist attacks on Lod Airport, Israel by the Red Army terrorist group. The data sets coded so far (in excess of 40,000 entries) cover the period from 1968-2009. Although The RAND Corporation owns the data sets, other organisations have periodically hosted the RDWTI, including the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland (1994-1998) and the Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, Oklahoma (MIPT).

59. Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE)

Host Institution: National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), Washington D.C., United States.

Scope: United States Government’s central repository of information on international terrorist identities.

Access: Restricted.

Website: https://www.dni.gov/files/Tide_Fact_Sheet.pdf

E-Mail: [email protected]

Summary: The Terrorist Identities Datamart Environment (TIDE) serves as the United States Government’s (USG) key central database and knowledge bank on international terrorist identities – both known and suspected. The TIDE system also feeds information into the United States Terrorist Screening Center (TSC) with near real-time datasets of terrorist identifiers.The NCTC provides advisories and recommendations to the Terrorist Screening Center’s watchlist’s from the TIDE Datamart.

60. Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS)

Host Institution: National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC) Washington, D.C. United States.

Scope: Domestic and International Terrorism.

Access: Database now closed. The WITS data sets were transferred to the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) program at START, National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism. University of Maryland, Maryland, United States

Website: [Database is now incorporated into GTD]: http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd

E-Mail: N/A

Summary: The Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) was developed and operated by the National Counterterrorism Center from 2004-2010 until it ceased operation in 2012. The WITS database provided the U.S. State Department with the statistical and quantitative data on domestic and worldwide terrorism events data, as required by law, and to be submitted to the U.S. Congress annually. The WITS database evolved into a sophisticated relational database system with advanced graphical functionality. Data sourced from the WITS database formed the core data for the NCTC’s annual publication: The National Counterterrorism Annual Report on Terrorism. The data from WITS was subsequently integrated into the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) under the auspices of the University of Maryland’s START - National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism project.

About the Author: Neil G. Bowie is an independent scholar, specialising in the analysis of terrorism and counter-terrorism databases. He holds a Ph.D. from the Centre for the Study of Terrorism and Political Violence (CSTPV) at the University of St. Andrews, Scotland. Dr. Bowie also holds degrees from the Universities of Aberdeen, Strathclyde and from Edinburgh’s Napier University. He can be reached at: [email protected].

Notes

[1] Neil G. Bowie and Alex P. Schmid. Databases on Terrorism. In: Alex P. Schmid (Ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Terrorism Research. London and New York: Routledge, 2011, pp. 294 – 340.

[2] For a discussion of databases on terrorism, see the doctoral dissertation of the author: Bowie, N.G. (2012). The Application of Database Technologies to the Study of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Post 9/11 Analysis. (Un-published doctoral dissertation). University of St. Andrews, Scotland.

[3] Brian J. Phillips. “Do 90 Percent of Terrorist Groups Last Less Than a Year? Updating the Conventional Wisdom.” Terrorism and Political Violence, forthcoming.



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Perspectives on Terrorism is  a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies

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