A Chronology of Attacks onn and Unlawful Interferences with, Offshore Oil and Gas Installations, 1975 – 2010

A Chronology of Attacks onn and Unlawful Interferences with, Offshore Oil and Gas Installations, 1975 – 2010

 by Mikhail Kashubsky

 

Abstract

 Throughout its history, the oil and gas industry has been a subject of environmental protests, labour disputes, tensions with local communities, and it has also been a target of various violent activities ranging from vandalism to political violence, which have impinged on the security of oil industry workers and interfered with operational activities of oil companies on numerous occasions. Although a considerable number of attacks on oil and gas infrastructure occurred over the course of the industry’s existence, most of those attacks were directed against onshore petroleum targets. Compared to onshore petroleum infrastructure, attacks on offshore oil and gas installations are relatively rare. The following chronology provides details of attacks, unlawful interferences, and security incidents involving offshore oil and gas installations that happened between 1975 and 2010.

 

 Introduction

This chronology [1]  lists some 60 events. [2] The chronology was compiled from publically available data on past attacks against maritime and petroleum infrastructure collected from various sources including databases, policy documents and reports of national and international government and non-government organisations, scholarly commentaries, journal articles, books, and previous studies done by academics and security analysts, as well as media reports, newspapers, and online news. [3] It should be noted that sometimes different sources report different details of offshore attacks and incidents. In some cases, inconsistent and conflicting facts are reported. Where possible, all reasonable effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of information contained in this chronology.

It is recognised that this chronology probably does not list all incidents that happened during that period and it does not reflect the frequency at which they are happening. Therefore, it does not necessarily provide a reliable base for quantitative analysis. Nevertheless, some interesting observations can be made.

 

General Observations

It is apparent that attacks on, and interferences with, offshore petroleum installations have generally increased in recent years. The majority of attacks/interferences have occurred since the beginning of 2004. In particular, 41 of 60 incidents (almost 70 percent) have occurred since 1 January 2004. Prior to the beginning of this chronology, we found only one security incident/attack, namely the 1899 ‘Montecito Mob’ incident which is also listed. However, there must have been more in the intervening 75 years.  The majority of security incidents involved violence (whether actual use of violence or threat of violence), but 15 of 60 incidents (25 per cent) were non-violent.

The types of installations that had been victims of attacks/interferences include fixed offshore production platforms, mobile offshore drilling rigs, floating production storage and offloading units (FPSOs), floating storage and offloading units (FSOs), offshore oil export terminals, and other types of offshore installations such as oil derricks, wellhead platforms, and flow stations. In some cases, the type of facilities attacked was not specified, but incidents involving offshore drilling rigs are the most common. [4]

Attacks and security incidents involving offshore oil and gas installations have taken place in practically all regions of the world. [5] The analysis of offshore security incidents by location shows that most of the incidents occurred in economically and politically unstable countries [6] and some occurred in stable countries, but the incidents listed in this chronology are limited to the following countries: the United States, the United Kingdom, Angola, Iran, United Arab Emirates, Nigeria, Guyana/Suriname, Iraq, Yemen, Indonesia/Malaysia (Malacca Strait), India, Malaysia, Denmark (Greenland), Cameroon, and Mexico. The majority of offshore incidents (more than 60 percent) took place in Nigeria.

The attacks/interferences have been committed by various types of adversaries including terrorists, insurgents, pirates, hostile nation States, environmental activists, anti-oil activists and other protesters, and sometimes unknown perpetrators. The analysis indicates that insurgent groups are responsible for at least one-third of all incidents. [7] There are five bomb threats and threats of attack (rather than the actual attacks) among the incidents recorded in this chronology. Other incident scenarios include abduction of workers, armed intrusion, hostage-taking, bombing and use  of explosives, military strikes, and unauthorised boarding. The most common scenario is armed intrusion and abduction of offshore workers. [8]

In at least 13 of 60 incidents there was some kind of damage caused to platforms and 8 of 60 attacks resulted in human casualties. Almost all incidents caused interruption or shutdown of platform operations. The means of transport that assailants use to reach offshore platforms is often not reported, but in most cases perpetrators used motorboats. In some cases, small fishing vessels and vessels that look similar to offshore supply vessels were used.

 

Date

Location

Details of Attack/Incident

2 Aug 1899

USA

When an oil company began to construct an oil derrick off the shores of Montecito, a highly affluent suburb of Santa Barbara in the State of California, a local mob took direct action. They attacked the rig and demolished it. [9] The next day these activists were described approvingly on the front page of the local newspaperas ‘a party of the best known society men of Santa Barbara armed to meet any resistance’. [10] The local ‘society men’ responsible for the attack did not suffer any noteworthy legal repercussions for their actions, despite having been so well known. [11] The incident had become known as ‘Montecito Mob’.

25 Aug 1975

UK

Philips Petroleum Company in Yarmouth, England, received three anonymous telephone calls with callers announcing that underwater charges with delayed‑action fuses had been attached to the legs of offshore production platforms in the Hewett field, some 20 miles to the east off Norfolk coast. Three platforms were evacuated immediately. [12] A Royal Navy vessel, helicopters, and an expert diving team were dispatched. Two days later, it was concluded that the threat was a hoax, and normal production operations were resumed. The incident cost to the British taxpayers about USD $500,000. [13]

16 May 1977

Angola

An African guerrilla movement, the Cabinda Enclave Liberation Front (CELF), said that it plans to blow up the offshore drilling complex of the Gulf Oil Company (GOC) in the Cabinda enclave of Angola and warned the company to evacuate its 200 British and American employees within three days. A spokesman for the guerrilla group said the warning must be taken seriously because the movement had acquired ground‑to‑ground missiles in exchange for coffee and uncut diamonds. [14] The guerrilla spokesman said the guerrillas were opposed to GOC because it was giving the ruling pro‑Marxist Angolan Popular Liberation Movement $2 million a day in oil royalties. [15]

25 Jul 1981

USA

Greenpeace activists attempted to board an oil rig operated by Shell 177 miles off the coast of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, to express their opposition to drilling during a Shell news conference on the rig. Shell denied the group access to the drilling rig. Greenpeace officials sought to explain their fear that the drilling (which had been delayed for six years) would result in oil spills endangering the nearby Georges Bank, home for much of the world’s supply of cod, haddock and food fish. [16] Shell denied the group access to the drilling rig and Shell spokesman said Georges Bank is a relatively low‑risk geological formation for oil spills.

Oct 1981

USA

An anonymous caller said that a bomb had been placed on one of several attending vessels at Habitat Texaco platform located 9 miles offshore, southeast of Santa Barbara, California. No bomb was found after platform and vessel searches. [17]

Mar 1983

Iran

Iraqi planes attacked the Iranian offshore platform at the Nowruz oil field; the damaged platform collapsed, and the oil slick caught fire. [18] The platform burned and spilled oil at an initial rate of approximately 5,000 barrels per day (bpd). The rate slowed to about 1,500 bpd in the two years before the well was capped in May 1985. Overall, approximately 1.9 million barrels of oil spilled into the sea as a result of this incident. [19]

19 Oct 1987

Iran

The US Navy attacked Iranian R-7 and R-4 oil platforms in Reshadat (also known as Rostam)offshore complex blaming Iran for a missile strike on the US-flagged Kuwaiti oil tanker Sea Isle City near Kuwait Harbour three days earlier. [20] The Navy destroyers opened fire on R-7 platform and subsequently detonated explosives on it, completely destroying it; and R-4 platform was attacked in a similar fashion and severely damaged. [21] As a result of the attack, one platform was almost completely destroyed and another was severely damaged and, according to Iran, production from the Reshadat and Resalat offshore complexes was interrupted for several years. [22] The attacks caused damage to the nearby Resalat offshore complex, connected by underwater pipelines to Reshadat. [23]

Apr 1988

UAE

In response to the US attack on the Iranian Joshan missile boat, Iranian patrol boats attacked the neighbouring United Arab Emirates’s Mubarak oil field. The Iranian boats sprayed several ships and a mobile drilling rig with machine-gun fire and grenades but caused no casualties. [24]

18 Apr 1988

Iran

The US military attacked and destroyed Iranian offshore oil complexes, Salman (aka Sassan) and Nasr (aka Sirri), shortly after the US frigate, Samuel B Roberts was damaged by a mine, allegedly belonging to Iran, in international waters near Bahrain. [25] According to Iran, the attacks caused severe damage to the production facilities of the platforms and the activities of the Salman complex were totally interrupted for four years, its regular production being resumed only in September 1992, and reached a normal level in 1993; and activities in the whole Nasr complex were interrupted and did not resume until nearly four years later. [26]

30 Apr 1995

UK

Greenpeace activists occupied Brent Spar facility in the North Sea for more than three weeks thereby interfering with Shell’s decommissioning operations. [27] Shell subsequently obtained legal permission to evict the protesters from the platform and the protesters were removed from Brent Spar on 23 June 1995. [28]

13 Dec 1997

Nigeria

Employees and villagers kidnapped one US citizen, one Australian, and two British oil workers, and at least nine Nigerian staff members of Western Geophysical, a US-owned oil exploration company off the coast of Nigeria. The victims were released in stages on 17 and 18 December 1997. [29]

25 May 1998

Nigeria

Over 100 unarmed and peaceful Ilaje protestors went to the Chevron’s Parabe oil production platform about nine miles offshore. Nigerian Navy and Mobile Police stationed at the platform, who were armed, allowed the protestors aboard. [30] The protestors occupied the platform to protest environmental and distribution issues, and to demand monetary compensation for environmental and economic grievances and jobs. [31] After two days of negotiations, Chevron used its contracted helicopters to fly Nigerian security forces to the platform. Security forces opened fire at the protesters which resulted in the death of two protesters and several others were wounded. [32]

27 Jun 1999

Nigeria

Armed youth militants (local anti-oil industry activists) stormed a Shell oil platform in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The attackers caused damage to the platform and kidnapped three foreign platform workers, including an Australian. [33] The attackers then hijacked a helicopter and forced the hostages to fly them to a village near Warri. [34] The hostages were released unharmed on or about 16 July 1999 for an undisclosed ransom. A group calling itself Enough is Enough in the Niger River (EENR) claimed responsibility. [35]

20 Jul 1999

Nigeria

Armed men stormed a Royal Dutch Shell operated oil rig in Osoko and held seven British nationals and 57 Nigerians hostage. On 22 July 1999, the youths released the hostages unharmed. [36]

10 Aug 1999

Nigeria

Three British nationals were kidnapped by armed youths from a US operated oil platform in the Niger Delta region. [37] No one was injured, and no one claimed responsibility. On 11 August the youths released the hostages unharmed. [38]

3 Jun 2000

Guyana/ Suriname

The gunboats of the Suriname Navy approached an American owned and operated offshore oil drilling rig, CE Thornton, retained by the Canadian corporation CGX Energy. [39] The Canadian company had received a license from the Guyanese government to conduct exploratory drilling in a disputed area of the continental shelf claimed by both Guyana and Suriname. [40] The Surinamese Navy advised that the rig was in Surinamese waters and ordered it to stop unauthorised drilling immediately and clear the area within 12 hours. Fearing that the Surinamese Navy would use force against it, the oil rig decided to follow the orders to withdraw. [41]

31 Jul 2000

Nigeria

About thirty-five armed young men from a village in Bayela State used a rowboat to reach two oil platforms off the coast. They boarded the rig and took 165 oil workers hostage, including 20 foreigners. They demanded that Shell employ more Nigerian nationals and that it pay a fee to the local community for exploiting its petroleum resources. Shell made a deal with the hostage-takers and the employees were released four days later. [42]

23 Aug 2001

Nigeria

The local community group of anti-oil activists boarded a Shell’s production platform and the nearby Trident VIII jack‑up drilling rig. The rig’s crew was safely evacuated to Port Harcourt and the activists had withdrawn. [43]

Apr 2003

Nigeria

About 100 oil workers were held hostage aboard offshore installations off the coast of Nigeria by striking Nigerian workers complaining about redundancies and unfair dismissal of Nigerian employees. The hostages included over twenty Americans and over thirty British nationals. [44]

24 Apr 2004

 

Iraq

Terrorists carried out a suicide boat attack on offshore Al-Basra Oil Terminal (ABOT) in the Persian Gulf. [45] Two zodiac type speedboats piloted by suicide bombers approached the terminal at high speed. The lead boat aimed at the platform and was fired upon, after which it detonated before it could hit the platform. The second boat was also fired upon, killing attackers but the boat still rammed MV Takasuza oil tanker, yet it failed to detonate/explode. [46] The Al-Basra terminal, capable of exporting up to 900,000 bpd, was shut down for two days, which (combined with a closure of KAAOT) cost nearly $28 million in lost revenues due to oil not being exported during that time. [47] This consequently led to the spike in oil prices on the world markets which resulted in a further loss of approximately US$6 billion to the global economy. [48] The attack was allegedly carried out by Zarqawi network based in Iraq. In addition, the initial security zone of 2 nautical miles around ABOT was supplemented with a 3000 metre warning zone and a 2000 metre exclusion zone. [49]

24 Apr 2004

Iraq

Terrorists carried out a suicide boat attack against offshore Khawr Al-Amaya Oil Terminal (KAAOT) in the Persian Gulf using a dhow. [50] The dhow was intercepted by a coalition forces vessel as it approached the exclusion zone around the platform. Soon after it was boarded by Navy personnel, the boat exploded. Two US Navy sailors and one member of the US Coastguard were killed in the attack, and four others were injured. [51] No damage was reported, but the terminal ­was immediately shut down by the authorities. [52] KAAOT, which exports about 700,000 bpd, reopened the next day following the attacks. [53] The attack was allegedly carried out by Zarqawi network based in Iraq. The initial security zone of 2 nautical miles around KAAOT was supplemented with a 3000 metre warning zone and a 2000 metre exclusion zone. [54]

Sep 2004

Yemen

Yemeni insurgents abducted several Western nationals based on offshore oil facilities off the coast of the Red Sea. After several hours, the workers were released. Yemeni authorities have increased security at all sea ports and oil terminals in response to the attacks and information ‘about the intention of a foreign terrorist group to carry out sabotage acts on vital oil facilities on Yemeni shores’. The security effort included the deployment of helicopters around two oil terminals on the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea. [55]

3 Nov 2004

Malacca Strait

In the Malacca Strait, outside Malaysia’s and Indonesia’s territorial seas, several lookalike fishing boats followed a tug towing the oil rig Ocean Sovereign, while underway. [56] The duty officer alerted Master who came to the bridge and observed a boat heading for tug. Crew mustered and as the pirates came within 250 metres of tug, they started shooting, causing extensive damage to navigation equipment, bridge windows and the superstructure. Crew switched on lights, activated fire hoses and fired rocket flares but the pirates continued to shoot with automatic weapons. When they were within 50 metres, the crew took evasive manoeuvres and the pirate boat moved away. The crew suffered no physical injuries but was shaken after the incident. [57]

12 Jun 2005

Nigeria

A group of armed men boarded FPSO Jamestown in Warri Region and took hostage all 45 crew members. After lengthy negotiations, the gunmen released all hostages unharmed three days later. [58]

22 Sep 2005

Nigeria

More than 100 armed militants stormed a Chevron-operated Idama oil production platform in the southern Niger Delta in response to the arrest of an ethnic militia leader on treason charges and forced it to shut down operations. [59] Armed with assault rifles, militants attacked the platform using about eight boats, each carrying 15 gunmen, and occupied the Idama flow station. Six government security forces had their weapons taken from them. Production of 8,000 bpd shut down. [60]

10 Jan 2006

/

11 Jan 2006 [61]

Nigeria

Movement for the Emancipation of Niger Delta (MEND) rebels attacked Shell’s EA offshore oil platform located about 15 km offshore and kidnapped four foreign oil workers from a support vessel anchored at the platform. [62] The company shut down 115,000 bpd EA platform. MEND demanded the immediate and unconditional release of Dokubo-Asari and Governor D.S.P. Alamieyeseigha. [63] Insurgents also blew up crude oil pipelines, cutting supplies to Forcados offshore export terminal by 100,000 bpd. [64] Some sources claim that EA platform was not attacked, but a support vessel in the vicinity of the platform was attacked. [65] Hostages were released on or about 30 January 2006.

15 Jan 2006

Nigeria

MEND insurgents, travelling in speedboats, attacked Shell’s Benisede flow station. They burned down staff accommodation and damaged the processing facilities, [66] killing at least 16 people in the process, including fourteen soldiers and two civilians. [67] Shell’s operations were reduced by about 106,000 bpd as a result of the attack and the company was forced to consider evacuating. [68]

18 Feb 2006

Nigeria

MEND insurgents in speedboats bombed the Forcados offshore oil loading terminal and abducted nine workers from the nearby offshore barge at the Escravos coast, [69] and they also damaged oil platform equipment. [70] Six workers were released on 1 March and the remaining three on 27 March. [71]

2 Jun 2006

Nigeria

About 30 armed militants boarded a semi-submersible rig, the Bulford Dolphin, about 65 km offshore and abducted eight offshore workers. [72] Hostages were released a couple of days later. [73] About 20 non-essential personnel were evacuated to shore and the rest of the rig crew was safe, but operations were temporarily halted. The attack also contributed to the rise of oil prices by about $1 to $71.50 per barrel. [74]

22 Aug 2006

Iran

Iranian Navy attacked and seized control of Orizont offshore drilling rig, owned by the Romanian oil company Grup Servicii Petroliere (GSP), in the Salman field. There were 26 Romanian offshore workers on board the platform at the time of the incident. Iranian troops had seized and occupied the rig after firing on it with machine guns from a ship. The rig was operated under a deal signed between Petrom, GSP and Dubai-based Oriental Oil Co, and the shooting reportedly happened as the rig was being taken outside Iranian waters for a mandatory overhaul. Iranian armed forces kept the crew on the rig’s heliport for several hours without food and water, but later they allowed the crew to return to their quarters after cutting off all communications between the workers and the company. The incident arose due to a commercial dispute. [75]

22 Nov 2006

Nigeria

FPSO Mystras was attacked by armed men while anchored off Port Harcourt. Ten gunmen boarded the facility and kidnapped seven workers. Their boat was intercepted by the authorities and engaged in a shoot-out during which one worker was killed, one injured, and five others were rescued. [76]

22 Mar 2007

India

Mobile offshore drilling unit Aban VII (jack-up rig) was attacked by pirates in speedboats near the south west coast of India, outside India’s territorial sea. [77] The rig was boarded by three pirates while under tow. Pirates were noticed as they were preparing to transfer some equipment from the rig to their speedboats and the alarm was raised. Pirates jumped overboard and escaped in their speedboats. [78]

31 Mar 2007

/

1 Apr 2007 [79]

 

Nigeria

Bulford Dolphin mobile offshore drilling rig was attacked again by gunmen about 65 km off the coast of Nigeria. One British expatriate worker was abducted and taken ashore from the platform. The attackers, believed to be pirates, boarded the rig via an offshore support vessel, which was secured alongside the platform at the time of the incident. [80] Hostage was released on 4 April 2007. [81]

19 Apr 2007

Nigeria

An offshore security vessel that was supporting Trident VIII drilling rig, was attacked and three Nigerian sailors were abducted and another six were injured. The gunmen also seized weapons and equipment.  Trident VIII rig was later shut down as a result of this incident and the staff of Don Walker oil rig, which was within a 10 minute boat ride from the incident, had requested security reinforcements from the nearest naval base. [82]

1 May 2007

Nigeria

Chevron’s Oloibiri floating storage and offloading (FSO) unit was reportedly attacked by MEND at offshore Pennington field off southern Bayelsa state. One Nigerian sailor was killed during the attack and six other foreign oil workers were abducted, but later released on 2 June 2007. [83] The FSO was moored near Funiwa platform. The production at the 15,000 bpd Funiwa field and other fields supported by this vessel was shut down to avoid any additional security or safety incidents. [84]

3 May 2007

Nigeria

FPSO Mystras was attacked by gunmen believed to be pirates they boarded via the anchor chain. The intruders kidnapped eight foreign workers, including an Australian, from FPSO and an offshore support vessel. The workers were released the following day. [85] FPSO was moored about 55 km off Port Harcourt (however, some sources report that it was 55 miles offshore). Force majeure was declared at a field capable of producing 50,000 bpd, and the production was shut down for several days. [86] Some sources report that this attack was carried out by MEND, not pirates; and that six foreign workers were kidnapped, not eight. [87]

5 May 2007

Nigeria

Trident VIII offshore drilling rig was attacked and boarded by gunmen, believed to be pirates, near Brass oil export terminal. One crew member was kidnapped. [88] The attack triggered a security lockdown of the Brass crude oil export terminal. [89]

22 Jun 2007

Nigeria

In the early hours three gunmen armed with AK-47s boarded the 159,000-dwt Cape Brindisi moored at Pennington Oil Terminal (also known as FSO Oloibiri) and proceeded to shoot up the vessel. No injuries to the crew were reported as they succeeded in going into lock-down mode, after which the gunmen left the ship. The militants reportedly took control of the FSO Oloibiri, where the Cape Brindisi had been loading. [90]

20 Oct 2007

Nigeria

Seven workers were kidnapped at the EA field (possibly from FPSO Sea Eagle) about 15 km off the coast of Bayelsa state by gunmen in speedboats including four Nigerians, a Russian, a British, and a Croatian. All workers were released two days later. [91]

26 Oct 2007

Nigeria

Gunmen in speedboats attacked FPSO Mystras about 85 km offshore at an oil production facility operated by Saipem, taking hostage six oil workers. MEND had claimed responsibility for the attack. [92]

10 Feb 2008

UK

Safe Scandinavia oil rig in the North Sea issued a security alert which resulted in one of the biggest evacuations in the history of the North Sea offshore industry. It was reported that a catering worker on the rig screamed ‘Bomb!’ in her sleep and apparently was ‘convinced that her nightmare was about to come true’. The authorities sent helicopters to evacuate more than 500 workers, but it turned out that it was just a dream. [93] The company reported that 161 workers evacuated to the neighbouring Alba and Armada platforms before the operation was called off. [94]

10 Jun 2008

Nigeria

In the early morning, near Port Harcourt, Rivers, Nigeria, armed assailants in speedboats fired upon an oil facility, killing nine naval officers and wounding four civilians. No group claimed responsibility. [95]

19 Jun 2008

Nigeria

Royal Dutch Shell’s Bonga floating production storage and offloading vessel (FPSO) was attacked by armed militants about 120 km offshore. It was reported that at about 1:00 am around two dozen armed men in speedboats stormed the floating facility and after failing to get access inside they started shooting at FPSO and those on board. Some people were wounded, but no lives were lost. The attack lasted for almost four hours, during which the militants also encountered and hijacked an offshore support vessel and kidnapped its US captain, but released him later that day. [96] The responsibility for the attack was claimed by MEND, the most high-profile militant group in the region. The facility was damaged in the attack, which forced the company to shut down the entire production at its main offshore oil field in Nigeria, interrupting production of approximately 200,000 bpd and 150 million standard cubic feet of gas. [97]

16 Sep 2008

Nigeria

Shooting was reported near Chevron-operated Idama offshore production platform, causing Chevron to evacuate offshore workers as a precaution. [98]

26 Dec 2008

Malaysia

Six armed robbers boarded the mobile offshore drilling rig Allied Centurion in Malaysia’s territorial sea and stole stores and property from the facility. One crew member suffered head injuries, but remained in stable condition. Authorities were informed and later boarded for investigation. [99]

21 Jun 2009

Nigeria

In Rivers state assailants detonated explosives damaging two oil pipelines at Adamakiri and in Kula respectively as well as an offshore facility at the Afremo oil fields operated by Shell, but causing no fatalities or injuries. MEND claimed responsibility. [100]

25 Jun 2009

Nigeria

MEND militants rejected the government’s amnesty offer, arguing it did not address the fundamentals of the crisis in the region. MEND claims to have blown up the second remaining well head platform Jacket B of the Shell Afremo offshore oil fields in Delta state. [101]

26 Jun 2009

Nigeria

MEND claims that at least 20 soldiers were killed in one of its attacks on Shell’s Forcados offshore terminal in Delta state. Chevron evacuated hundreds of workers from the Niger Delta after the attacks. [102] At least six high-profile attacks by MEND on oil well heads, offshore platforms, major pipelines and oil pumping stations were reported. [103]

29 Jun 2009

Nigeria

MEND attacked Shell’s Forcados offshore terminal facility in Delta state using explosives. [104] Cluster 11 and 30 caught on fire after a massive explosion. A confrontation with a military gunboat patrol that stumbled upon heavily armed fighters resulted in the sinking of the gunboat with about 20-25 soldiers on board. [105]

5 Jul 2009

Nigeria

MEND attacked Shell’s Well Head 20 platform located at Cawthorn Channel 1. The facility connects to the Bonny loading terminal in Rivers state. On the same day MEND militants attacked and blew up the strategic Okan manifold which controled about 80 per cent of Chevron Nigeria Limited offshore crude oil to its BOP Crude Loading Platform in Delta state. [106]

12 Jul 2009

Nigeria

MEND conducted a raid on an oil offloading facility in Lagos. This was the group’s first attack outside Niger Delta in several months. Five people were killed in the attack. [107]

5 Jan 2010

Nigeria

A group of pirates attacked FSO Westaf, off Lagos, Nigeria. Seven crew members were taken to hospital due to the attack including the master who was wounded in the stomach. The attackers stole cash, crew belongings and expensive ship equipment. [108]

31 Aug 2010

Greenland

Greenpeace activists ‘boarded’ the drilling rig Stena Don operating in Arctic waters offshore Greenland and were suspended 15 meters above the water in tents to protest against drilling operations. The activists had to outrun Danish Navy commandos before climbing up the inside of the rig and hanging from it in tents suspended from ropes. They remained on their position for two days forcing the company to suspend drilling. [109] The drillship Stena Forth, which is located about 20 miles away, also had to be shut down during the Stena Don occupation. [110]

21 Sep 2010

UK

In the waters off the Shetland Islands in the UK, Greenpeace activists climbed the anchor chain of Chevron-operated drill ship Stena Carron and were hanging suspended from the chain in a capsule-tent several days, effectively delaying the company’s drilling operations in the Atlantic Frontier. [111]

22 Sep 2010

Nigeria

Armed men (believed to be pirates) attacked and attempted to take control of an offshore oil rig at an oil field operated by Addax Petroleum. [112] The assailants became locked in a sustained gunfire with Nigerian Navy patrol boat after it intervened; later it kidnapped three French employees from an offshore supply vessel while retreating. [113] A Thai employee may also have been taken hostage during the attack. The pirates nearly reached the platform by using a vessel which looked like the ships that routinely provide supplies to offshore rig workers. [114]

7 Nov 2010

Nigeria

A group of MEND insurgents attacked  the High Island VII offshore drilling jack-up rig at the Okoro offshore field located about 12 km offshore and kidnapped 19 crew members including 12 Nigerians, two Americans, two Frenchmen, two Indonesians and one Canadian. Hostages were freed ten days later. [115]

8 Nov 2010

Nigeria

Gunmen attacked an offshore rig operated by Afren PLC, which was engaged in exploratory/survey work at the Okoro oil field about 11 km off the coast of Nigeria. Seven foreigner workers were kidnapped from an oil rig and the company reported that two workers were wounded in the attack and have been flown out by helicopter to receive medical treatment.’ [116]

15 Nov 2010

Nigeria

Armed men boarded ExxonMobil’s Oso offshore platform on the Nigeria’s southeast coast and abducted eight offshore workers. At the time of the attack there were 74 people aboard the platform. The company suspended 75,000 bpd production from the facility. [117] The gunmen allegedly came in five speedboats; they beat up some crew members and cut electricity to the offshore facility. [118] A previously unknown group, which identified itself as the Niger Delta Liberation Force (NDLF), claimed responsibility for the attack and threatened to target oil installations in fresh attacks. [119]

17 Nov 2010

Cameroon

The Africa Marine Commando (AMC) rebel group carried out a deadly assault on an offshore oil platform at the offshore Moudi oil terminal (consisting of production platform, FSO Moudi and a single buoy mooring) located in the Gulf of Guinea about 50 km off Cameroon’s disputed Bakassi peninsula. [120] Six people were killed in the attack, including three members of Cameroon’s Rapid Intervention Battalion (a national defence force) involved in the security of offshore oil and gas installations, two Cameroonian civilians and one of the attackers. [121] Cameroonian security service said that the group had threatened further attacks unless they receive money. [122]

22 Nov 2010

Mexico

Four Greenpeace activists took protesting action by climbing 39 metres over the water at the deepwater oil rig Centenario, off the coast of the State of Veracruz, in Mexico. The activists boarded the rig and put up a large banner stating ‘Go Beyond Oil’ to call for an end to deepwater drilling. [123]

 

About the Compiler: Mikhail Kashubsky is a Principal Consultant at the Centre for Customs and Excise Studies (CCES), University of Canberra, Australia and a PhD Candidate at the Australian National Centre for Ocean Resources and Security (ANCORS), University of Wollongong, Australia (Email: [email protected]). This chronology is based on part of the author’s PhD thesis research.

Notes

[1] Attacks on offshore underwater pipelines and oil tankers are not included.

[2] It is arguably the most comprehensive chronology of attacks on offshore petroleum installations that has ever been produced and published.

[3] The sources include the International Maritime Bureau (IMB) Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships annual and quarterly reports; International Maritime Organisation Maritime Safety Committee (IMO MSC) circulars titled Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships; reports such as Country Reports on Terrorism and Patterns of Global Terrorism which are produced annually by the US Department of State; Worldwide Threat to Shipping Reports produced by the US Office of Naval Intelligence; Anti-Shipping Activity Messages published by the Federation of American Scientists; A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets published by RAND Corporation in 1983; reports based on the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) database; NCTC Reports on Terrorism published by the US National Counterterrorism Center; the Worldwide Incidents Tracking System (WITS) database maintained by the US National Counterterrorism Center; the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) maintained by the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism, as well as several studies undertaken by academics and security analysts such as a 2005 study of the Institute for Information Infrastructure Protection (IIIP) titled Trends for Oil and Gas Terrorist Attacks and a study by Brynjar Lia and Ashild Kjok entitled Energy Supply as Terrorist Targets? Patterns of “Petroleum Terrorism”, 1968-99.

 [4] Distribution of incidents by ‘type of facility’: offshore drilling rigs – 18 of 60; fixed offshore production platforms – 7 of 60; FPSOs – 5 of 60; FSOs and other storage facilities – 4 of 60; offshore oil export terminals – 5 of 60; other types of facilities (such as oil derricks, wellhead platforms, flow stations) – 4 of 60; and unspecified types of facilities – 14 of 60.

[5] These include: 39 in Africa, 8 in the Middle East, 3 in Asia, 5 in Europe (including Greenland), and 5 in the Americas.

[6] These include: Angola, Iran, Nigeria, Guyana/Suriname, Iraq, Yemen, Indonesia/Malaysia (Malacca Strait), India, Malaysia, Cameroon, and Mexico.

[7] Distribution of incidents by ‘type of perpetrators’: insurgents – 20 of 60; terrorists – 2 of 60; pirates – between 1-7 of 60; environmental activists – 5 of 60; anti-oil activists and other protesters – 6 of 60; hostile States – 6 of 60; unidentified/unknown perpetrators – 12 of 60.

[8] Distribution of incidents by ‘tactic/scenario’: abduction of offshore workers – 17 of 60; armed intrusion – 17 of 60; bomb threat or threat of attack – 5 of 60; hostage-taking 4 of 60; bombings and use of explosives – 5 of 60; unauthorised boarding – 8 of 60; military strikes – 6 of 60.

[9] Robert Gramling and William Freudenburg, ‘Attitudes Toward Offshore Oil Development: A Summary of Current Evidence’ (2006), 49 Ocean & Coastal Management, 442, 442-443; Harvey Molotch, William Freudenburg and Krista Paulsen, ‘History Repeats Itself, But How? City Character, Urban Tradition, and the Accomplishment of Place’ (2000) 65(6) American Sociological Review, 791,804.

[10] Santa Barbara Morning Press (Santa Barbara), 3 August 1899, 1 quoted and cited in Harvey Molotch, William Freudenburg and Krista Paulsen, ‘History Repeats Itself, But How? City Character, Urban Tradition, and the Accomplishment of Place’ (2000) 65(6) American Sociological Review, 791,804.

[11] Robert Gramling and William Freudenburg, ‘Attitudes Toward Offshore Oil Development: A Summary of Current Evidence’ (2006) 49 Ocean & Coastal Management, 442, 442-443.

[12] Jan Breemer, ‘Offshore Energy Terrorism: Perspectives on a Problem’ (1983) 6 Terrorism 455, 455.

[13] Jan Breemer, ‘Offshore Energy Terrorism: Perspectives on a Problem’ (1983) 6 Terrorism 455, 455.

[14] Brian Jenkins et al, ‘A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets’(Rand Paper Series, RAND Corporation, September 1983), 15.

[15] Brian Jenkins et al, ‘A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets’(Rand Paper Series, RAND Corporation, September 1983) ,16.

[16] Brian Jenkins et al, ‘A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets’(Rand Paper Series, RAND Corporation, September 1983), 20.

[17] Brian Jenkins et al, ‘A Chronology of Terrorist Attacks and Other Criminal Actions Against Maritime Targets’(Rand Paper Series, RAND Corporation, September 1983), 21.

[18] US Gulf Task Force, Environmental Crisis in the Gulf: The US Response (6 November 1992) cited in Alicia Watts-Hosmer, Colby Stanton, and Julie Beane, ‘Intent to Spill: Environmental Effects of Oil Spills Cased by War, Terrorism, Vandalism, and Theft’ (Paper presented at 1997 International Oil Spill Conference, Fort Lauderdale, USA, 7-10 April 1997), 157, 158 <http://www.iosc.org/papers/01058.pdf> at 5 October 2010. See also Larry West, The 10 Worst Oil Spills in History: The Worlds Worst Oil Spills by Amount of Oil Released Into the Environment About.com <http://environment.about.com/od/environmentalevents/tp/worst-oil-spills.htm> , 5 December 2010.

[19] US Government, Office of Response and Restoration, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, US Department of Commerce, Nowruz Oil Field <http://www.incidentnews.gov/incident/6262> at 10 November 2010.

[20] Andrew Garwood‑Gowers, ‘Case Note: Case Concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) – Did the ICJ Miss the Boat on the Law on the Use of Force?’ (2004) 5(1) Melbourne Journal of International Law, 241, 243.

[21] James Green, ‘The Oil Platforms Case: An Error in Judgement’ (2004) 9(3) Journal of Conflict & Security Law , 357, 358.

[22] Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) (Merits) [6 November 2003] ICJ, Summary of the Judgement of 6 November 2003.

[23] James Green, ‘The Oil Platforms Case: An Error in Judgement’ (2004) 9(3) Journal of Conflict & Security Law 357, 358.

[24] David Crist, ‘Gulf of Conflict: A History of US-Iranian Confrontation at Sea’ (Policy Focus No 95, Washington Institute for Near East Policy, June 2009), 7-8.

[25] Andrew Garwood‑Gowers, ‘Case Note: Case Concerning Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) – Did the ICJ Miss the Boat on the Law on the Use of Force?’ (2004) 5(1) Melbourne Journal of International Law 241, 243. See also Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) (Merits) [6 November 2003] ICJ.

[26] Oil Platforms (Islamic Republic of Iran v United States of America) (Merits) [6 November 2003] ICJ, Summary of the Judgement of 6 November 2003.

[27] Greenpeace, The Brent Spar (21 June 2007) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/about/history/the-brent-spar/> at 8 July 2010.

[28] Greenpeace, The Brent Spar (21 June 2007) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/about/history/the-brent-spar/> at 8 July 2010. See also Simon Mar, The Precautionary Principle in the Law of the Sea: Modern Decision Making in International Law (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003), 129-30.

[29] US Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1997 (1998) <http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1997Report/chron.html> at 25 September 2008.

[30] Earth Rights International, What Happened at Parabe? (10 November 2009) <http://www.earthrights.org/legal/what-happened-parabe> at 11 December 2010.

[31] Philippe Le Billon, ‘Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict’ (2005) 45(373) Adelphi Papers 7, 36.

[32] Earth Rights International, What Happened at Parabe? (10 November 2009) <http://www.earthrights.org/legal/what-happened-parabe> at 11 December 2010.

[33] Department of Transport of Regional Services, Offshore Oil & Gas Risk Context Statement (2005) 25.

[34] Neal Adams, Terrorism & Oil (PennWell, 2003) 11. Brynjar Lia and Ashild Kjok, ‘Energy Supply as Terrorist Targets? Patterns of “Petroleum Terrorism” 1968-99’ in Daniel Heradstveit and Helge Hveem (eds.), Oil in the Gulf: Obstacles to Democracy and Development (Ashgate, 2004), 100, 110.

[35] US Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1999 (2000) <http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/appa.html> at 25 September 2008.

[36] US Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1999 (2000) <http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/appa.html> at 25 September 2008.

[37] Neal Adams, Terrorism & Oil (PennWell, 2003), 11.

[38] US Department of State, Patterns of Global Terrorism 1999 (2000) <http://www.state.gov/www/global/terrorism/1999report/appa.html> at 25 September 2008.

[39] Patricia Kwast, ‘Maritime Law Enforcement and the Use of Force: Reflections on the Categorisation of Forcible Action at Sea in the Light of the Guyana/Suriname Award’ (2008) 13(1) Journal of Conflict and Security Law, 49.

[40] Donna Nincic, ‘Troubled Waters: Energy Security and Maritime Security’ in Gal Luft and Anne Korin (eds.), Energy Security Challenges for the 21st Century: A Reference Handbook (ABC-CLIO, 2009) 31, 32; Michael Klare, Resource Wars: The New Landscape of Global Conflict (Owl Books, 2002), 231.

[41] Patricia Kwast, ‘Maritime Law Enforcement and the Use of Force: Reflections on the Categorisation of Forcible Action at Sea in the Light of the Guyana/Suriname Award’ (2008) 13(1) Journal of Conflict and Security Law 49, 50. See also Donald Rothwell and Tim Stephens, The International Law of the Sea (Hart Publishing, 2010) , 420.

[42] Brynjar Lia and Ashild Kjok, ‘Energy Supply as Terrorist Targets? Patterns of “Petroleum Terrorism” 1968-99’ in Daniel Heradstveit and Helge Hveem (eds.), Oil in the Gulf: Obstacles to Democracy and Development (Ashgate, 2004) 100, 110. See also Martin Murphy, Small Boats, Weak States, Dirty Money: Piracy & Maritime Terrorism in the Modern World (Hurst & Co, 2009) , 119.

[43] Business Wire, Transocean Sedco Forex Confirms Jackup Trident 8 Crew Safely Evacuated and Rig Secured Following Incident of Community Unrest in Nigeria (27 August 2001) High Beam Research <http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-77574501.html>  , 2 January 2011.

[44] John Thackrah, Dictionary of Terrorism (Routledge, 2nd ed, 2004) ,185.

[45] Nicolas Pyke, Suicide Bomber Boats Explode in Attack on Basra Oil Terminal (2004) The Independent <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/suicide-bomber-boats-explode-in-attack-on-basra-oil-terminal-756454.html> at 20 September 2008. See also Jihadi Websites Monitoring Group, Oil Installations as an Attractive Target for Terrorism (5 November 2009) International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, 11 <http://www.ict.org.il/Portals/0/Internet%20Monitoring%20Group/JWMG_Oil_Installations_as_a_Target.pdf> at 7 August 2010.

[46] Peter Lehr, ‘Maritime Terrorism: Locations, Actors, and Capabilities’ in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr (eds.) Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security (Taylor & Francis Group, 2009) 55, 60. However, Peter Lehr notes that according to the report of the Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA), both boats exploded before they could reach their targets. See Jonathan Howland, Countering Maritime Terror, US Thwarts Attacks, Builds Up Foreign Navies (17 June 2004) JINSA Online <http://www.jinsa.org/articles/print.html/documentid/2567> cited in Peter Lehr, ‘Maritime Terrorism: Locations, Actors, and Capabilities’ in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr (eds.) Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security (Taylor & Francis Group, 2009) 55, 60, n 12.

[47] Ali Koknar, ‘Maritime Terrorism: A New Challenge for NATO’ (2005) Energy Security 18 <http://www.iags.org/n0124051.htm> at 17 March 2009. See also Nicolas Pyke, Suicide Bomber Boats Explode in Attack on Basra Oil Terminal (2004) The Independent <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/suicide-bomber-boats-explode-in-attack-on-basra-oil-terminal-756454.html> at 20 September 2008; John Daly, ‘The Threat to Iraqi Oil’ (2004) 2(12) Terrorism Monitor; Peter Lehr, ‘Maritime Terrorism: Locations, Actors, and Capabilities’ in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr (eds.) Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security (Taylor & Francis Group, 2009) 55, 61.

[48] Andrew Forbes, ‘The Economic Impact of Disruptions to Seaborne Energy Flows’ (2008) 23 Papers in Australian Maritime Affairs 57, 65.

[49] US Government, US Navy, Coalition Maritime Forces Revise Iraqi Oil Terminal Protection Procedures (6 May 2004) <http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=13177> at 31 January 2011.

[50] See, eg, John Daly, ‘Terrorism and Piracy: The Dual Threat to Maritime Shipping’ (2008) 6(16) Terrorism Monitor 4.

[51] Peter Lehr, ‘Maritime Terrorism: Locations, Actors, and Capabilities’ in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr (eds.) Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security (Taylor & Francis Group, 2009), 55, 61.

[52] Nicolas Pyke, Suicide Bomber Boats Explode in Attack on Basra Oil Terminal (2004) The Independent <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/suicide-bomber-boats-explode-in-attack-on-basra-oil-terminal-756454.html> at 20 September 2008. See also Jihadi Websites Monitoring Group, Oil Installations as an Attractive Target for Terrorism (5 November 2009) International Institute for Counter-Terrorism, 11 <http://www.ict.org.il/Portals/0/Internet%20Monitoring%20Group/JWMG_Oil_Installations_as_a_Target.pdf> at 7 August 2010.

[53] Ali Koknar, ‘Maritime Terrorism: A New Challenge for NATO’ (2005) Energy Security 18 <http://www.iags.org/n0124051.htm> at 17 March 2009. See also Nicolas Pyke, Suicide Bomber Boats Explode in Attack on Basra Oil Terminal (2004) The Independent <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/suicide-bomber-boats-explode-in-attack-on-basra-oil-terminal-756454.html> at 20 September 2008; Red Orbit News, Iraqi Oil Terminal is Closed After Attack (2004) Red Orbit <http://www.redorbit.com/news/general/53790/iraqi_oil_terminal_closed_after_attack/> at 20 September 2008.

[54] US Government, US Navy, Coalition Maritime Forces Revise Iraqi Oil Terminal Protection Procedures (6 May 2004) <http://www.navy.mil/search/display.asp?story_id=13177> at 31 January 2011.

[55] World Tribune, Yemen on Alert for Al Qaida Attack on Oil Facilities (3 September 2004) <http://www.worldtribune.com/worldtribune/WTARC/2004/me_terror_09_03.html> at 22 October 2010. See also Shawn Woodford, ‘Al-Qaeda and Saudi Arabia: A Chronology’ in Erich Marquardt (ed.) Saudi Arabian Oil Facilities: The Achilles Heel of the Western Economy (Jamestown Foundation, 2006) 35, 44.

[56] International Maritime Organization, Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Issued Monthly - Acts Reported During November 2004, IMO Doc MSC.4/Circ.61 (16 December 2004) annex 2 (‘Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Allegedly Attempted Against Ships Reported by Member States or International Organizations in Consultative Status’), 1.

[57] International Maritime Organization, Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Issued Monthly - Acts Reported During November 2004, IMO Doc MSC.4/Circ.61 (16 December 2004) annex 2 (‘Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Allegedly Attempted Against Ships Reported by Member States or International Organizations in Consultative Status’) , 1.

[58] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Annual Report 2005 (2006) 55.

[59] Upstream Online, Delta Rebels Storm Idama Platform (22 September 2005) <http://www.upstreamonline.com/live/article98970.ece> at 9 May 2011; Estelle Shirbon, Armed Militants Seize Oil Platform After Leader is Held (23 September 2005) The Scotsman <http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/world/Armed-militants-seize-oil-platform.2663710.jp> at 9 May 2011.

[60] Estelle Shirbon, Armed Militants Seize Oil Platform After Leader is Held (23 September 2005) The Scotsman <http://thescotsman.scotsman.com/world/Armed-militants-seize-oil-platform.2663710.jp> at 9 May 2011.

[61] Some sources report that the incident took place on 10 January 2006; others report that it took place on 11 January 2006.

[62] RedOrbit News, Gunmen in Kidnap Raid on Oil Platform (2008) RedOrbit <http://www.redorbit.com/news/display/?id=356153> at 18 September 2008. See also Erich Marquardt, ‘The Niger Delta Insurgency and Its Threat to Energy Security’ in Jonathan Hutzley (ed.) Unmasking Terror: A Global Review of Terrorist Activities (Jamestown Foundation, 2007) vol 3, 236, 238.

[63] Niger Delta Rising, Timeline of Events (2010) <http://www.nigerdeltarising.org/resources/timeline> at 28 March 2010.

[64] Africa Master Web, Chronology of Nigerian Militants’ Attacks (21 February 2007) <http://www.africamasterweb.com/AdSense/NigerianMilitants06Chronology.html> at 1 November 2010.

[65] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 15 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[66] Daniel Howden, Shell May Pull Out of Niger Delta After 17 Die in Boat Raid (17 January 2006) Corp Watch <http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=13121> at 19 August 2008.

[67] International Crisis Group, ‘The Swamps of Insurgency: Nigeria’s Delta Unrest’ (Africa Report No 115, International Crisis Group, 3 August 2006) 1.

[68] Jennifer Giroux, ‘Turmoil in the Delta: Trends and Implications’ (2008) 2(8) Perspectives on Terrorism 11, 15 citing Daniel Howden, Shell May Pull Out of Niger Delta After 17 Die in Boat Raid (17 January 2006) Corp Watch <http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=13121> at 19 August 2008.

[69] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Report for the Period 1 January – 31 March 2006 (2006) 25. See also Ed Kashi and Michael Watts, Curse of the Black Gold: 50 Years of Oil in Niger Delta (2008) 37.

[70] International Maritime Organization, Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Issued Monthly - Acts Reported During March 2006, IMO Doc MSC.4/Circ.84 (18 April 2006) annex 1 (‘Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Allegedly Committed Against Ships Reported by

Member States or International Organizations in Consultative Status’) 1.

[71] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 15 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011; Niger Delta Rising, Timeline of Events (2010) <http://www.nigerdeltarising.org/resources/timeline> at 28 March 2010.

[72] Martyn Wingrove, ‘Nigeria Kidnap Hikes Up Oil Price’, Lloyd’s List DCN (Sydney), 8 June 2006, 14. See also See also Erich Marquardt, ‘The Niger Delta Insurgency and Its Threat to Energy Security’ in Jonathan Hutzley (ed.) Unmasking Terror: A Global Review of Terrorist Activities (Jamestown Foundation, 2007), Vol 3, 236, 240.

[73] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) , 19 .<http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[74] Martyn Wingrove, ‘Nigeria Kidnap Hikes Up Oil Price’, Lloyd’s List DCN (Sydney), 8 June 2006, 14.

[75] Andy Critchlow and Marc Wolfensberger, Iran’s Navy Attacks and Boards Romanian Rig in Gulf: Update3 (22 August 2006) Bloomberg <http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=newsarchive&sid=adVreywC1G_k> at 20 August 2009. See also BBC News, Iran ‘Attacks Romanian Oil Rig’ (22 August 2006) <http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/5274374.stm> at 20 August 2009; Jihad Watch, Iran Pre-empted Pending Int'l Court Action to Attack Romanian Oil Rig (27 August 2006) <http://www.jihadwatch.org/2006/08/iran-pre-empted-pending-intl-court-action-to-attack-romanian-oil-rig.html> at 20 August 2009.

[76] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Annual Report 2006 (2007).

[77] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Annual Report (2007) 53.

[78] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Annual Report (2007) 53.

[79] Some sources report that the incident took place on 31 March 2007,; others report that it took place on 1 April 2007.

[80] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Report for the Period 1 April – 30 June 2007 (2007) 42; International Maritime Organization, Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Issued Monthly - Acts Reported During April 2007, IMO Doc MSC.4/Circ.102 (19 June 2007) annex 1 (‘Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Allegedly Committed Against Ships Reported by Member States or International Organizations in Consultative Status’).

[81] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 19 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[82] David Pearl and Sarah Aboufasha, Worldwide Threats to Shipping: Marine Warning Information (2007) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency <http://www.nga.mil/MSISiteContent/StaticFiles/MISC/wwtts/wwtts_20070502100000.txt> at 22 September 2008.

[83] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 20 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[84] David Pearl and Sarah Aboufasha, Worldwide Threats to Shipping: Marine Warning Information (2007) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency <http://www.nga.mil/MSISiteContent/StaticFiles/MISC/wwtts/wwtts_20070502100000.txt> at 22 September 2008; Rupert Herbert‑Burns, ‘Tankers, Specialized Production Vessels, and Offshore Terminals: Vulnerability and Security in the International Maritime Oil Sector’ in Rupert Herbert-Burns, Sam Bateman and Peter Lehr (eds) Lloyd’s MIU Handbook of Maritime Security (Taylor & Francis Group, 2009) 133, 155.

[85] David Pearl and Sarah Aboufasha, Worldwide Threats to Shipping: Marine Warning Information (2007) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency <http://www.nga.mil/MSISiteContent/StaticFiles/MISC/wwtts/wwtts_20070502100000.txt> at 22 September 2008; International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Report for the Period 1 April - 30 June 2007 (2007) 43.

[86] Upstream Online, Force Majeure at Okono-Okpoho (6 May 2007) <http://www.upstreamonline.com/incoming/article132853.ece> at 30 October 2010.

[87] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 20 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[88] International Maritime Bureau, Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships Report for the Period 1 April – 30 June 2007 (2007) 43.

[89] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 20 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[90] Bergen Risk Solutions, Niger Delta Maritime Security Quarterly Review (9 July 2007) 22 <http://www.bergenrisksolutions.com/index.php?dokument=294> at 2 January 2011.

[91] David Cutler, Chronology - Attacks in Nigeria’s Oil Delta (4 June 2008) Reuters <http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSL04786711> at 18 October 2010.

[92] The Hindu, Gunmen in Speedboats Kidnap 6 Oil Workers in Nigeria (26 October 2007) <http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/holnus/003200710261962.htm> 16 August 2010. See also Rig Zone, FPSO Mystras Attacked (26 October 2007) <http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=52081> at 20 October 2010.

[93] Mike Nizza, Another Security Threat: It was All a Dream (2008) New York Times <http://thelede.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/02/11/another-security-threat-it-was-all-a-dream/> at 20 September 2008.

[94] Australian Federal Police, North Sea Oil Rig Evacuated After Hoax (2008) Sydney Morning Herald <http://www.smh.com.au/news/world/north-sea-oil-rig-evacuated-after-hoax/2008/02/11/1202578630294.html> at 29 March 2009.

[95] US Government, National Counterterrorism Center, Worldwide Incidents Tracking System <https://wits.nctc.gov> at 21 November 2009.

[96] Nick Tattersall, Attack Halts Shell’s Bonga Oilfield (2008) Offshore Technology <http://www.offshore‑technology.com/news/news5329.html> at 2 July 2008. See also Jeff Vail, The Significance of the Bonga Offshore Oil Platform Attack (2008) The Oil Drum <http://www.theoildrum.com/node/4196> at 1 July 2008.

[97] AFX News Limited, Shell's Bonga Still Not at Capacity after Militant Attack (2008) Rig Zone <http://www.rigzone.com/news/article.asp?a_id=6358> at 2 July 2008.

[98] Austin Ekeinde, Nigerian Militants Sabotage Oil Facilities (16 September 2008) Reuters < http://uk.reuters.com/article/2008/09/16/businessproind-nigeria-delta-dc-idUKLE51403420080916 > at 9 May 2011; Austin Ekeinde, Nigerian Militants Attacked Two Oil Installations in the Heaviest Fighting in the Niger Delta in Two Years, Security Sources Said on Tuesday (16 September 2008) Reuters <http://uk.reuters.com/article/2008/09/16/uk-nigeria-delta-idUKLG63750820080916> at 9 May 2011.

[99] International Maritime Organization, Reports on Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships: Issued Monthly - Acts Reported During December 2008, IMO Doc MSC.4/Circ.129 (20 March 2009) annex 1 (‘Acts of Piracy and Armed Robbery Allegedly Committed Against Ships Reported by Member States or International Organizations in Consultative Status’).

[100] US Government, National Counterterrorism Center, Worldwide Incidents Tracking System <https://wits.nctc.gov> at 21 November 2009.

[101] Niger Delta Rising, Timeline of Events (2010) <http://www.nigerdeltarising.org/resources/timeline> at 28 March 2010.

[102] Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), Nigeria: Timeline of Recent Unrest in Niger Delta Region (2010) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b71214bc.html> at 28 March 2010.

[103] Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), Nigeria: Timeline of Recent Unrest in Niger Delta Region (2010) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b71214bc.html> at 28 March 2010.

[104] US Government, National Counterterrorism Center, Worldwide Incidents Tracking System <https://wits.nctc.gov> at 21 November 2009.

[105] Niger Delta Rising, Timeline of Events (2010) <http://www.nigerdeltarising.org/resources/timeline> at 28 March 2010.

[106] Niger Delta Rising, Timeline of Events (2010) <http://www.nigerdeltarising.org/resources/timeline> at 28 March 2010.

[107] Relief Web, Nigeria: Timeline of Recent Unrest in Niger Delta Region (4 February 2010) Relief Web <http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/MUMA-82D2AY?OpenDocument> at 22 October 2010; Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), Nigeria: Timeline of Recent Unrest in Niger Delta Region (2010) United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees <http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/4b71214bc.html> at 28 March 2010.

[108] Chief’s Briefs by Oyibos OnLine, Gulf of Guinea 20th – 26th March 2010 Weekly Intelligence Summary (2010) <http://www.chiefsbriefs.com/?p=3431> at 3 December 2010.

[109] Greenpeace, Greenpeace Activists Occupy Arctic Oil Rig (31 August 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/Greenpeace-activists-occupy-Arctic-oil-rig-100831/> at 15 October 2010; Greenpeace, Greenpeace Activists End Arctic Oil Rig Occupation (2 September 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/Greenpeace-Activists-End-Arctic-Oil-Rig-Occupation020910/> at 15 October 2010.

[110] Greenpeace, Greenpeace Activists Occupy Arctic Oil Rig (31 August 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/Greenpeace-activists-occupy-Arctic-oil-rig-100831/> at 15 October 2010; Greenpeace, Greenpeace Activists End Arctic Oil Rig Occupation (2 September 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/Greenpeace-Activists-End-Arctic-Oil-Rig-Occupation020910/> at 15 October 2010.

[111] Greenpeace, Activists Stop Chevron Deepwater Drilling Ship Off the Shetland Islands (21 September 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/chevron-shetland-stopped210910/> at 15 October 2010. See also Office of Naval Intelligence, Worldwide Threat to Shipping Report (7 October 2010) National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency <http://www.nga.mil/MSISiteContent/StaticFiles/MISC/wwtts/wwtts_20101007100000.txt> at 15 October 2010.

[112] Jon Gambrell, Nigeria: 5 Kidnapped in Offshore Oil Rig Attack (8 November 2010) Desert News <http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700079609/Nigeria-5-kidnapped-in-offshore-oil-rig-attack.html?pg=2> at 19 March 2011.

[113] Greg Keller, Pirates Attack Offshore Oil Platform Near Nigeria, Then Kidnap 3 French Employees from Ship (22 September 2010) Fox News <http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/09/22/pirates-attack-french-marine-services-ship-nigeria-employees-taken-hostage/> at 19 March 2011. See also Jon Gambrell, Nigeria: 5 Kidnapped in Offshore Oil Rig Attack (8 November 2010) Desert News <http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700079609/Nigeria-5-kidnapped-in-offshore-oil-rig-attack.html?pg=2> at 19 March 2011.

[114] Greg Keller, Pirates Attack Offshore Oil Platform Near Nigeria, Then Kidnap 3 French Employees from Ship (22 September 2010) Fox News <http://www.foxnews.com/world/2010/09/22/pirates-attack-french-marine-services-ship-nigeria-employees-taken-hostage/> at 19 March 2011. See also Australian Association for Maritime Affairs, ‘Inquiry Set Up Into Sector’s Security’ (2011) 199 Australian Maritime Digest 9, 9.

[115] ‘Counter Terrorism Security Response: Energy and Nuclear 15-21 November 2010’ (Weekly Report, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, November 2010) 2. See also Upstream Online, Crew Snatched in Okoro Raid(9 November 2010) <http://www.upstreamonline.com/live/article236087.ece> at 4 December 2010; Petroleum Africa, Okoro Field Attacked Offshore Nigeria (9 November 2010) <http://petroleumafrica.com/en/newsarticle.php?NewsID=10598> at 4 December 2010.

[116] Jon Gambrell, Nigeria: 5 Kidnapped in Offshore Oil Rig Attack (8 November 2010) Desert News <http://www.deseretnews.com/article/700079609/Nigeria-5-kidnapped-in-offshore-oil-rig-attack.html> at 19 March 2011.

[117] Dulue Mbachu and Elisha Bala-Gbogbo, Exxon Mobil Says Offshore Platform in Nigeria Attacked (15 November 2010) Bloomberg Businessweek <http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-11-15/exxon-mobil-says-offshore-platform-in-nigeria-attacked.html> 4 December 2010.

[118] Will Connors, ExxonMobil Shuts Some Output After Nigeria Attack (15 November 2010) Fox Business <http://www.foxbusiness.com/markets/2010/11/15/exxonmobil-shuts-output-nigeria-attack/> at 4 December 2010

[119] See also ‘Counter Terrorism Security Response: Energy and Nuclear 15-21 November 2010’ (Weekly Report, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, November 2010), 1-2.

[120] Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Six Killed in Cameroon Oil Platform Attack: Security Source (17 November 2010) <http://internationaljustice.rnw.nl/africa/bulletin/six-killed-cameroon-oil-platform-attack-security-source> 4 December 2010.

[121] Radio Netherlands Worldwide, Six Killed in Cameroon Oil Platform Attack: Security Source (17 November 2010) <http://internationaljustice.rnw.nl/africa/bulletin/six-killed-cameroon-oil-platform-attack-security-source> 4 December 2010. See also Andrew McGregor, ‘Cameroon Rebels Threaten Security in Oil-Rich Gulf of Guinea’ (2010) 8(43) Terrorism Monitor 7, 7.

[122] See ‘Counter Terrorism Security Response: Energy and Nuclear 15-21 November 2010’ (Weekly Report, International Centre for Political Violence and Terrorism Research, November 2010) 2. See also Agence France Presse (AFP), Cameroon Rebels Threaten More Oil Attacks: Security Source (2010) <http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5jEs8Jwi8Imy11k0OSNXPsEDfIzpQ?docId=CNG.43a57f15426eed4e3d958f8281348a4b.501> at 4 December 2010.

[123] Greenpeace, Activist Occupy Oil Rig in the Gulf of Mexico (22 November 2010) <http://www.greenpeace.org/international/en/news/features/Activist-occupy-centenario221110/> at 2 January 2011.



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ENHANCING SECURITY THROUGH COLLABORATIVE RESEARCH

Perspectives on Terrorism is  a journal of the Terrorism Research Initiative and the Center for Terrorism and Security Studies

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